WATT / Energous Corporation REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON FORM S-3

SecurityWATT / Energous Corporation
Form TypeS-3
File Date2018-08-09

Document List

WATT / Energous Corporation REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON FORM S-3
WATT / Energous Corporation EX-4.8
WATT / Energous Corporation EX-4.9
WATT / Energous Corporation EX-5.1
WATT / Energous Corporation EX-12.1
WATT / Energous Corporation EX-23.1
Registration Statement on Form S-3
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 9, 2018

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Energous Corp.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   46-1318953

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

3590 North First Street, Suite 210

San Jose, California 95134

(408) 963-0200

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of principal executive offices)

 

 

Stephen R. Rizzone

Chief Executive Officer

3590 North First Street, Suite 210

San Jose, California 95134

(408) 963-0200

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

With copies to:

Horace Nash

Caroline Wells

Fenwick & West LLP

801 California Street

Mountain View, California 94041

(650) 988-8500

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   ☐  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered(1)

 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Security(3)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price(3)

 

Amount of

Registration Fee(4)

Common stock, $0.00001 par value per share                
Preferred stock, $0.00001 par value per share                
Debt securities                
Warrants                
Total           $75,000,000   $9,337.50(5)

 

 

(1)

There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of (a) common stock, (b) preferred stock, (c) debt securities and (d) warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, as may be sold from time to time by the Registrant. There are also being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock and debt securities as shall be issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities that provide for such issuance. In no event will the aggregate offering price of all types of securities issued by the Registrant pursuant to this registration statement exceed $75,000,000.

(2)

Pursuant to Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or similar transaction.

(3)

The proposed maximum offering price per share and proposed maximum aggregate offering price for each type of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder.

(4)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933.

(5)

The total registration fee is $9,337.50. Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the Registrant has offset $1,780.28, which is the dollar amount of the filing fee previously paid by the registrant with respect to $14,299,436.00 unsold securities under Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-203622) filed on April 24, 2015, against the amount of the registration filing fee for this Registration Statement on Form S-3. Therefore, $7,557.22 is being paid with this filing.

 

 

THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE COMMISSION ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 9, 2018

PROSPECTUS

$75,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

We may from time to time issue, in one or more series or classes, up to $75,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants in one or more offerings. We may offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any of the securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will specify in the accompanying prospectus supplement the terms of the securities being offered. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in our securities.

We may sell these securities to or through underwriters and also to other purchasers or through agents. We will set forth the names of any underwriters or agents, and any fees, conversions or discount arrangements, in the accompanying prospectus supplement. We may not sell any securities under this prospectus without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol “WATT.” On August 7, 2018, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Stock Market, was $14.05 per share. We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus beginning on page 5 and any applicable prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this Prospectus is                 , 2018.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

About this Prospectus

     1  

Prospectus Summary

     2  

Risk Factors

     5  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     6  

Use of Proceeds

     7  

Description of Capital Stock

     8  

Description of Debt Securities

     12  

Description of Warrants

     19  

Plan of Distribution

     21  

Legal Matters

     24  

Experts

     24  

Where You Can Find More Information

     24  

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

     24  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total amount of $75,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “Energous”, “we”, “our”, “us” and “the Company” refer, collectively, to Energous Corp., a Delaware corporation.

We own various U.S. federal trademark registrations and applications and unregistered trademarks, including our corporate logo. This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contains references to trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus and the information incorporated herein, including logos, artwork, and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, service marks or trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, service marks or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained in other parts of this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 and our other filings with the SEC listed below under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider in making your investment decision. Before deciding to invest in our securities, you should read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and the information incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Our Company

Energous is the developer of a technology called WattUp® that consists of proprietary semiconductor chipsets, software, hardware designs and antennas that enables radio frequency-based charging for electronic devices, providing wire-free charging solutions for contact-based charging and at-a-distance charging, ultimately enabling charging with mobility under software control.

Our solution charges electronic devices by surrounding them with a focused, radio frequency energy pocket. We are engineering solutions that we expect to enable the wire-free transmission of energy for contact-based applications as well as far field applications of up to 15 feet. We are also developing our Far Field transmitter technology to seamlessly mesh (like a network of Wi-Fi routers) to form a wire-free charging network that will allow users to charge their devices as they move from room-to-room or throughout a large space.

We believe our proprietary technology can be utilized in a variety of devices, and our strategy is to support the development and proliferation of our WattUp® technology to form a ubiquitous wire-free charging ecosystem.

In November 2016, we entered into a Strategic Alliance Agreement with Dialog Semiconductor plc (“Dialog”), pursuant to which Dialog manufactures and distributes integrated circuit products incorporating our wire-free charging technology. Dialog is our exclusive supplier of these products for the general market.

We were incorporated in Delaware in October 2012. Our corporate headquarters is located at 3590 North First Street, Suite 210, San Jose, CA 95134. Our website can be accessed at www.energous.com. The information contained on, or that may be obtained from our website, is not, and shall not be deemed to be, part of this prospectus.

The Securities We May Offer

With this prospectus, we may from time to time issue, in one or more series or classes, up to $75,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants in one or more offerings. We may offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any of the securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions. Each time we offer securities, we will specify in the accompanying prospectus supplement the terms of the securities being offered. The following is a summary of the securities we may offer with this prospectus.

Common Stock

We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.00001 per share.



 

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Preferred Stock

We may offer shares of our preferred stock, par value $0.00001 per share, in one or more series. Our board of directors or a committee designated by the board will determine the dividend, voting, conversion and other rights of the series of shares of preferred stock being offered. Each series of preferred stock will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or the winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.

Debt Securities

We may offer general obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated and convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the “debt securities.” Our board of directors will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered.

We will issue the debt securities under an indenture between us and a trustee. In this document, we have summarized general features of the debt securities from the indenture. We encourage you to read the indenture, which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Warrants

We may offer warrants for the purchase of debt securities, shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities. Our board of directors will determine the terms of the warrants.



 

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Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

The following table sets forth, for each of the periods presented, our ratio of earnings to fixed charges. You should read this table in conjunction with the financial statements and notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Six
Months
Ended
June 30,
2018
     2014    2015    2016    2017  

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges(1)

   N/A    N/A    N/A      N/A      N/A

 

(1)

For purposes of calculating the ratio above, earnings consist of income before income taxes plus fixed charges. Fixed charges typically include interest expense, non-cash interest expense, and an estimate of the interest expense within rental expense.

We did not record earnings for any of the years ended December 31, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, or for the six months ended June 30, 2018. Accordingly, our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for such periods and we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for such periods. The dollar amount of the deficiency in earnings available for fixed charges for the year ended December 31, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 and for the six months ended June 30, 2018 was approximately $45.6 million, $27.6 million, $45.8 million, $49.4 million, and $25.7 million, respectively.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties referenced below and described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2017, which are on file with the SEC and incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and (ii) other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts and can be identified by the words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “potentially,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “expect,” and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes.

These forward-looking statements are subject to many risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in and incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.

You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds to us from the sale of our securities under this prospectus. We will set forth in the prospectus supplement our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research and development of our product candidates, expanding our manufacturing capabilities, increasing our working capital, acquisitions or investments in businesses, products or technologies that are complementary to our own and capital expenditures. Pending the application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 50,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.00001 par value per share. As of June 30, 2018, there were 25,561,610 shares of our common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding. Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded.

Common Stock

Holders of our common stock are entitled to such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for such purpose. The shares of common stock are neither redeemable nor convertible. Holders of common stock have no preemptive or subscription rights to purchase any of our securities.

Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each such share outstanding in the holder’s name. No holder of common stock is entitled to cumulate votes in voting for directors.

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive pro rata our assets, which are legally available for distribution, after payments of all debts and other liabilities. All of the outstanding shares of our common stock are fully paid and non-assessable. The shares of common stock offered by this prospectus will also be fully paid and non-assessable.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol “WATT.”

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue from time to time up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors is also be able to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may be able to authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock.

Registration Rights

The holders of shares of our common stock that were acquired pursuant to a certain Securities Purchase Agreement (“SPA”) with the Company dated June 28, 2017 are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of those shares (“Registrable Securities”) under the Securities Act. These registration rights terminate when the stockholder can sell its shares publicly under Rule 144 of the Securities Act without a volume limitation.

Demand Registration Rights

Under the SPA, we are required, as soon as reasonably practicable following the request of a stockholder with registration rights, prepare and file with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act covering

 

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the resale of such portion of the Registrable Securities requested by the stockholder. The Company shall not be obligated to file and have declared effective more than two registration statements per year, each including not less than 100,000 shares of Common Stock (as adjusted by any stock split, dividend or other distribution, recapitalization or similar event).

Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents

The following is a summary of certain provisions of Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws. This summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the corporate law of Delaware and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws.

Effect of Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute.

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, an anti-takeover law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination (defined below) with any interested stockholder (defined below) for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

   

prior to that date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares of voting stock outstanding (but not the voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned by persons who are directors and officers and by excluding employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

on or subsequent to that date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines “business combination” to include:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to limited exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation, or who beneficially owns 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation at any time within a three-year period immediately prior to the date of determining whether such person is an interested stockholder, and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by any of these entities or persons.

 

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Effect of California Long-Arm Statute. We are a Delaware corporation, governed by the Delaware General Corporation Law. However, our headquarters, property and officers are located in California, and Section 2115 of the California Corporations Code purports to impose on corporations like the Company certain portions of California’s laws governing corporations formed under the laws of the State of California. While disputes have arisen regarding the enforceability of Section 2115, the statute purports to apply the California Corporations Code in the following areas of governance to corporations that meet the test for applicability of Section 2115: Chapter 1 (general provisions and definitions), to the extent applicable to the following provisions; Section 301 (annual election of directors); Section 303 (removal of directors without cause); Section 304 (removal of directors by court proceedings); Section 305, subdivision (c) (filling of director vacancies where less than a majority in office elected by shareholders); Section 309 (directors’ standard of care); Section 316 (excluding paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) and paragraph (3) of subdivision (f)) (liability of directors for unlawful distributions); Section 317 (indemnification of directors, officers, and others); Sections 500 to 505, inclusive (limitations on corporate distributions in cash or property); Section 506 (liability of shareholder who receives unlawful distribution); Section 600, subdivisions (b) and (c) (requirement for annual shareholders’ meeting and remedy if same not timely held); Section 708, subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) (shareholder’s right to cumulate votes at any election of directors); Section 710 (supermajority vote requirement); Section 1001, subdivision (d) (limitations on sale of assets); Section 1101 (provisions following subdivision (e)) (limitations on mergers); Section 1151 (first sentence only) (limitations on conversions); Section 1152 (requirements of conversions); Chapter 12 (commencing with Section 1200) (reorganizations); Chapter 13 (commencing with Section 1300) (dissenters’ rights); Sections 1500 and 1501 (records and reports); Section 1508 (action by Attorney General); Chapter 16 (commencing with Section 1600) (rights of inspection).

We believe it is likely that we meet the test for the application of Section 2115 and do not anticipate a specific time in the future when we would not meet such test. Section 2115, if applicable, would purport to require a different outcome for certain important activities fundamental to the governance of corporations, and you are encouraged to review the effect of Section 2115 to determine whether the differences from the Delaware General Corporation Law are important to you.

Our Charter Documents. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include provisions that may have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change in control or an unsolicited acquisition proposal that a stockholder might consider favorable, including a proposal that might result in the payment of a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders. Certain of these provisions are summarized in the following paragraphs.

Effects of Authorized but Unissued Common Stock. One of the effects of the existence of authorized but unissued common stock may be to enable our board of directors to make more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of our Company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby to protect the continuity of management. If, in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, the board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal was not in our best interest, such shares could be issued by the board of directors without stockholder approval in one or more transactions that might prevent or render more difficult or costly the completion of the takeover transaction by diluting the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder group, by putting a substantial voting block in institutional or other hands that might undertake to support the position of the incumbent board of directors, by effecting an acquisition that might complicate or preclude the takeover, or otherwise.

Action by Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not act by written consent.

Advanced Notice. Our bylaws provide that stockholders who wish to bring nominations or other business before an annual meeting of the stockholders or a special meeting of the stockholders must provide us with notice of such proposed nomination or business within specified time frames and must provide us with information regarding the potential nominee or proposal.

 

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Blank Check Preferred Stock. As noted above, our certificate of incorporation allows our Board to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series of preferred stock and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders.

Bylaw Amendment. Our certificate of incorporation provides our Board the ability to amend our bylaws without further vote or action by our stockholders.

Cumulative Voting. Our certificate of incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors, which would allow holders of less than a majority of the stock to elect some directors.

Exclusive Venue. Our certificate of incorporation provides that unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed to the Company or the Company’s stockholders by any director, officer or other employee of the Company, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Delaware Court of Chancery, or if the Delaware Court of Chancery determines that it does not have subject matter jurisdiction, the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware or any court of the State of Delaware having subject matter jurisdiction regarding the matter.

Special Meeting of Stockholders. Our certificate of incorporation provides that a special meeting of stockholders may only be called by the President, the Chief Executive Officer, or the board of directors at any time and for any purpose or purposes as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting.

Vacancies. Our certificate of incorporation provides that all vacancies may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Equiniti Group plc.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

General

We will issue the debt securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under an indenture to be entered into between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We have filed a copy of the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement in which this prospectus is included. The indenture will be subject to and governed by the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

We may offer under this prospectus up to an aggregate principal amount of $75,000,000 in debt securities, or if debt securities are issued at a discount, or in a foreign currency, foreign currency units or composite currency, the principal amount as may be sold for an aggregate public offering price of up to $75,000,000 . Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will represent our direct, unsecured obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured indebtedness.

We may issue the debt securities in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will describe the particular terms of each series of debt securities in a prospectus supplement relating to that series, which we will file with the SEC. The prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of debt securities being offered will specify the particular amounts, prices and terms of those debt securities. These terms may include:

 

   

the title of the series;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount, and, if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

 

   

the issue price or prices, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

 

   

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

 

   

the interest rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which interest, if any, will be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable;

 

   

the place or places where principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, is payable;

 

   

the terms and conditions upon which we may, or the holders may require us to, redeem or repurchase the debt securities;

 

   

the denominations in which such debt securities may be issuable, if other than denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple of that number;

 

   

whether the debt securities are to be issuable in the form of certificated securities (as described below) or global securities (as described below);

 

   

the portion of principal amount that will be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date if other than the principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the currency of denomination;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, will be made;

 

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if payments of principal and, if applicable, premium or interest, on the debt securities are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than the currency of denomination, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

   

if amounts of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index, then the manner in which such amounts will be determined;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for such debt securities;

 

   

any addition to or change in the covenants and/or the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture;

 

   

any events of default, if not otherwise described below under “Events of Default”;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion into or exchange for shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents; and

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to our other indebtedness.

We may issue discount debt securities that provide for an amount less than the stated principal amount to be due and payable upon acceleration of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture. We may also issue debt securities in bearer form, with or without coupons. If we issue discount debt securities or debt securities in bearer form, we will describe material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other material special considerations which apply to these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities denominated in or payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units. If we do, we will describe the restrictions, elections, and general tax considerations relating to the debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Debt securities offered under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement will be subordinated in right of payment to certain of our outstanding senior indebtedness. In addition, we will seek the consent of the holders of any such senior indebtedness prior to issuing any debt securities under this prospectus to the extent required by the agreements evidencing such senior indebtedness.

Registrar and Paying Agent

The debt securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange at the corporate trust office of the security registrar or at any other office or agency that we maintain for those purposes. In addition, the debt securities may be presented for payment of principal, interest and any premium at the office of the paying agent or at any office or agency that we maintain for those purposes.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

Debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock. The terms and conditions of conversion or exchange will be stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include, among others, the following:

 

   

the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

the conversion or exchange period;

 

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provisions regarding the convertibility or exchangeability of the debt securities, including who may convert or exchange;

 

   

events requiring adjustment to the conversion or exchange price;

 

   

provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of our redemption of the debt securities; and

 

   

any anti-dilution provisions, if applicable.

Registered Global Securities

If we decide to issue debt securities in the form of one or more global securities, then we will register the global securities in the name of the depositary for the global securities or the nominee of the depositary, and the global securities will be delivered by the trustee to the depositary for credit to the accounts of the holders of beneficial interests in the debt securities.

The prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement for debt securities of a series that are issued in global form. None of us, the trustee, any payment agent or the security registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.

No Protection in the Event of Change of Control

The indenture does not have any covenants or other provisions providing for a put or increased interest or otherwise that would afford holders of our debt securities additional protection in the event of a recapitalization transaction, a change of control or a highly leveraged transaction. If we offer any covenants or provisions of this type with respect to any debt securities covered by this prospectus, we will describe them in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Covenants

Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, our debt securities will not have the benefit of any covenants that limit or restrict our business or operations, the pledging of our assets or the incurrence by us of indebtedness. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any material covenants in respect of a series of debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

The form of indenture provides that we will not consolidate with or merge into any other person or convey, transfer, sell or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, unless:

 

   

we are the surviving person of such merger or consolidation, or if we are not the surviving person, the person formed by the consolidation or into or with which we are merged or the person to which our properties and assets are conveyed, transferred, sold or leased, is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the U.S., any state or the District of Columbia or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and has expressly assumed all of our obligations, including the payment of the principal of and, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities and the performance of the other covenants under the indenture; and

 

   

immediately before and immediately after giving effect to the transaction on a pro forma basis, no event of default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default, has occurred and is continuing under the indenture.

 

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Events of Default

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events will be events of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:

 

   

we fail to pay any principal or premium, if any, when it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to pay any interest within 30 days after it becomes due;

 

   

we fail to observe or perform any other covenant in the debt securities or the indenture for 60 days after written notice specifying the failure from the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series; and

 

   

certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us or any of our significant subsidiaries.

The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the debt securities of any series of any default, except in payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities of a series, if the trustee considers it to be in the best interest of the holders of the debt securities of that series to do so.

If an event of default (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) occurs, and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may accelerate the maturity of the debt securities. If this happens, the entire principal amount, plus the premium, if any, of all the outstanding debt securities of the affected series plus accrued interest to the date of acceleration will be immediately due and payable. At any time after the acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul such acceleration if:

 

   

all events of default (other than nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium or interest) have been cured or waived;

 

   

all lawful interest on overdue interest and overdue principal has been paid; and

 

   

the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree.

In addition, if the acceleration occurs at any time when we have outstanding indebtedness that is senior to the debt securities, the payment of the principal amount of outstanding debt securities may be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment of any amounts due under the senior indebtedness, in which case the holders of debt securities will be entitled to payment under the terms prescribed in the instruments evidencing the senior indebtedness and the indenture.

If an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occurs, the principal, premium and interest amount with respect to all of the debt securities of any series will be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or the holders of the debt securities of that series.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series will have the right to waive any existing default or compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities of that series and to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.

No holder of any debt security of a series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

the holder gives to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

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the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series make a written request and offer reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute a proceeding as trustee;

 

   

the trustee fails to institute a proceeding within 60 days after such request; and

 

   

the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request during such 60-day period.

These limitations do not, however, apply to a suit instituted for payment on debt securities of any series on or after the due dates expressed in the debt securities.

We will periodically deliver certificates to the trustee regarding our compliance with our obligations under the indenture.

Modification and Waiver

From time to time, we and the trustee may, without the consent of holders of the debt securities of one or more series, amend the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series, or supplement the indenture, for certain specified purposes, including:

 

   

to provide that the surviving entity following a change of control permitted under the indenture will assume all of our obligations under the indenture and debt securities;

 

   

to provide for certificated debt securities in addition to uncertificated debt securities;

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or make any other change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any holder; and

 

   

to appoint a successor trustee under the indenture with respect to one or more series.

From time to time we and the trustee may, with the consent of holders of at least a majority in principal amount of an outstanding series of debt securities, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities series, or waive compliance in a particular instance by us with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities. We may not, however, without the consent of each holder affected by such action, modify or supplement the indenture or the debt securities or waive compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities in order to:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement, or waiver to the indenture or such debt security;

 

   

reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest or reduce the amount of or postpone the date for payment of sinking fund or analogous obligations;

 

   

reduce the principal of or change the stated maturity of the debt securities;

 

   

make any debt security payable in money other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

change the amount or time of any payment required or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities or a redemption payment;

 

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waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt securities or change any provision with respect to redemption of debt securities; or

 

   

take any other action otherwise prohibited by the indenture to be taken without the consent of each holder affected by the action.

Defeasance of Debt Securities

The indenture permits us, at any time, to elect to discharge our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities by following specified procedures described in the indenture. These procedures allow us either:

 

   

to defease and be discharged from any and all of our obligations with respect to any debt securities except for the following obligations (which discharge is referred to as “legal defeasance”):

1. to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities;

2. to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

3. to compensate and indemnify the trustee; or

4. to maintain an office or agency in respect of the debt securities and to hold monies for payment in trust; or

 

   

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under certain covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be contained in the applicable supplemental indenture (which release is referred to as “covenant defeasance”).

In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose:

 

   

money;

 

   

U.S. Government Obligations (described below) or Foreign Government Obligations (as described below) that through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money; or

 

   

a combination of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent accountants to provide money;

that, in each case specified above, provides a sufficient amount to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series, on the scheduled due dates or on a selected date of redemption in accordance with the terms of the indenture.

In addition, defeasance may be effected only if, among other things:

 

   

in the case of either legal defeasance or covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel, as specified in the indenture, stating that as a result of the defeasance neither the trust nor the trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940;

 

   

in the case of legal defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that, or there has been a change in any applicable federal income tax law with the effect that (and the opinion shall confirm that), the holders of outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such legal defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if legal defeasance had not occurred;

 

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in the case of covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

 

   

other conditions described in the indenture are satisfied.

If we fail to comply with our remaining obligations under the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture after a covenant defeasance of the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture, and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee could be insufficient to pay amounts due under the debt securities of the affected series at the time of acceleration. We will, however, remain liable in respect of these payments.

The term “U.S. Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means securities that are direct obligations of or non-callable obligations guaranteed by the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

The term “Foreign Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. Dollars, (1) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (2) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agent or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by that government, which in either case under clauses (1) or (2), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer.

Regarding the Trustee

We will identify the trustee with respect to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable debt securities. You should note that if the trustee becomes a creditor of ours, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limit the rights of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee and its affiliates may engage in, and will be permitted to continue to engage in, other transactions with us and our affiliates. If, however, the trustee acquires any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in the exercise of its rights and powers, must use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to that provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they have offered to the trustee reasonable indemnity or security.

No Individual Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers or Directors

Each indenture provides that no incorporator and no past, present or future stockholder, officer or director of our company or any successor corporation in those capacities will have any individual liability for any of our obligations, covenants or agreements under the debt securities or such indenture.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

We may issue warrants for the purchase of our debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our debt securities, preferred stock or common stock and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.

Debt Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants to purchase debt securities will describe the terms of the debt warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the debt warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of the debt warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the debt securities, including any conversion rights, purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the debt warrants and any debt securities issued with them will be separately transferable;

 

   

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the debt warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the debt warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

whether the debt warrants represented by the debt warrant certificates or debt securities that may be issued upon exercise of the debt warrants will be issued in registered or bearer form;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the debt warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the debt warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the debt warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the debt warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise, and settlement of the debt warrants.

Debt warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new debt warrant certificates of different denominations. Debt warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in

 

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the prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their debt warrants, holders of debt warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise and will not be entitled to payment of principal or any premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise.

Equity Warrants

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase our common stock or preferred stock will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to a holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

   

to vote, consent, or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as stockholders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods or any other method permitted by law.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution to our existing security holders.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.

 

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If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable

 

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prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Fenwick & West LLP, Mountain View, California. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Energous Corp. as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2017, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of Marcum LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered hereby. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith or the documents incorporated by reference therein. For further information about us and the securities offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith and the documents incorporated by reference therein. Statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and in each instance we refer you to the copy of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. A copy of the registration statement and the exhibits filed therewith may be inspected without charge at the public reference room maintained by the SEC, located at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549, and copies of all or any part of the registration statement may be obtained from that office. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information about the public reference room. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the website is www.sec.gov.

We are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and, in accordance with this law, file periodic reports and other information with the SEC. These periodic reports and other information are available for inspection and copying at the SEC’s public reference facilities and the website of the SEC referred to above. We also maintain a website at www.energous.com. You may access these materials free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only. You may also inspect these documents at our corporate headquarters at 3590 North First Street, Suite 210, San Jose, California 95134, during normal business hours.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of the filing of this registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, except

 

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as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on March 16, 2018;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, which was filed with the SEC on April 12, 2018, as amended by Amendment No. 1 on Schedule 14A, which was filed with the SEC on April 17, 2018;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2018;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2018, filed with the SEC on August 9, 2018;

 

   

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 22, 2018; and

 

   

the description of capital stock included in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on March 26, 2014, and any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at 3590 North First Street, Suite 210, San Jose, California 95134; (408) 963-0200.

You may also access these documents, free of charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or on our website at www.energous.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed from, our website as part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

 

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LOGO

ENERGOUS CORP.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

                , 2018

 

 

 


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Part II

Information Not Required in the Prospectus

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The expenses payable by Energous Corp., or the Registrant, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered (other than underwriting discounts and commissions, if any) are set forth below. Each item listed is estimated, except for the Securities and Exchange Commission, registration fee and the FINRA filing fee.

 

Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee

   $ 7,557.22  

Legal fees and expenses

     *  

Accounting fees and expenses

     *  

Printing fees and expenses

     *  

Transfer agent and trustee fees

     *  

Miscellaneous

     *  

Total

     *  

 

*

To be provided by amendment or as an exhibit to a filing with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations. The terms of Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law are sufficiently broad to permit indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act.

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that eliminate the personal liability of its directors for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except liability for the following:

 

   

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Registrant or its stockholders;

 

   

acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (regarding unlawful dividends and stock purchases); or

 

   

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s bylaws provide that:

 

   

the Registrant is required to indemnify its directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to very limited exceptions;

 

   

the Registrant may indemnify its other employees and agents as set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law;

 

   

the Registrant is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors and executive officers in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to very limited exceptions; and

 

   

the rights conferred in the bylaws are not exclusive.

 

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The Registrant has entered into indemnification agreements with each of its current directors and executive officers to provide these directors and executive officers additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in the Registrant’s certificate of incorporation and bylaws and to provide additional procedural protections. There is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of the Registrant for which indemnification is sought. The indemnification provisions in the Registrant’s certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the indemnification agreements entered into between the Registrant and each of its directors and executive officers may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the Registrant’s directors and executive officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits

A list of exhibits filed with this registration statement on Form S-3 is set forth on the Exhibit Index and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(a)(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(l)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement;

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering;

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

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(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(l)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date;

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser;

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;

(7) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue; and

 

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(8) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Exhibit Title

  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
  3.1    Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Energous Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Amendment No.  1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-193522) filed on March 13, 2014)
  3.2    Amendment No.  1 to the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Energous Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on May 14, 2014)
  3.3    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Energous Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Amendment No.  1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-193522) filed on March 13, 2014)
  4.1    Specimen Certificate representing shares of common stock of Energous Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Amendment No.  2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-193522) filed on March 21, 2014)
  4.2    Amended and Restated Warrant issued to MDB Capital Group, LLC (ARW-1) dated December  13, 2013 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.12 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No.  333-193522) filed on January 24, 2014)
  4.3    Amended and Restated Warrant issued to MDB Capital Group, LLC (ARW-2) dated December  13, 2013 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.13 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No.  333-193522) filed on January 24, 2014)
  4.4    Form of Underwriter’s Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to Amendment No.  2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-193522) filed on March 21, 2014)
  4.5    Form of Amendment to Warrant to Purchase Common Stock Dated June  25, 2014 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on August 13, 2014
  4.6    Amended and Restated Warrant to Purchase Common Stock between the Company and Emily T Fairbairn Roth IRA, dated October  6, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.27 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on March 16, 2018)
  4.7    Amended and Restated Warrant to Purchase Common Stock between the Company and Malcom P Fairbairn Roth IRA, dated October  6, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.28 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on March 16, 2018)
  4.8    Form of debt security
  4.9    Form of indenture
  4.10*    Form of warrant
  4.11*    Form of warrant agreement
  4.12*    Form of preferred stock certificate
  5.1    Opinion of Fenwick & West LLP
12.1    Statement of Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges
23.1    Consent of Consent of Marcum LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
23.2    Consent of Fenwick & West LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature page hereto)
25.1**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939
25.2**    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

 

*

To be filed, if necessary, by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.

**

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.


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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement on Form S-3 to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, on the 9th day of August, 2018.

 

  ENERGOUS CORP.
By:  

/s/ Stephen R. Rizzone

  Stephen R. Rizzone
  President and Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Stephen R. Rizzone and Brian Sereda, and each of them, as his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, each with full power of substitution, for him in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments or any abbreviated registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) increasing the number of securities for which registration is sought), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Stephen R. Rizzone

Stephen R. Rizzone

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  August 9, 2018

/s/ Brian Sereda

Brian Sereda

   Sr. Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)   August 9, 2018

/s/ Nick Alexopoulos

Nick Alexopoulos

   Director   August 9, 2018

/s/ Martin Cooper

Martin Cooper

   Director   August 9, 2018

/s/ John R. Gaulding

John R. Gaulding

   Director   August 9, 2018

/s/ Robert J. Griffin

Robert J. Griffin

   Director   August 9, 2018

/s/ Rex S. Jackson

Rex S. Jackson

   Director   August 9, 2018

/s/ Carol Lindstrom

Carol Lindstrom

   Director   August 9, 2018
EX-4.8

Exhibit 4.8

FORM OF DEBT SECURITY

[Face of Security]

ENERGOUS CORPORATION

[If applicable, insert—FOR PURPOSES OF THE ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT PROVISIONS OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, THE ISSUE PRICE OF THIS SECURITY IS % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT AT STATED MATURITY SET FORTH BELOW (ITS “PRINCIPAL AMOUNT”), THE AMOUNT OF ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT IS % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT, THE YIELD TO MATURITY IS % AND THE ISSUE DATE IS]

[IF THE SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY, INSERT—THIS NOTE IS A GLOBAL SECURITY. IT IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR NOTES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY (AS HEREINAFTER DEFINED) OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES HEREINAFTER DESCRIBED AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO A SUCCESSOR OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.]

 

No.

   $                
     CUSIP No.  

Energous Corporation, a Delaware Corporation (herein called the “Company”, which term includes any successor corporation under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof), for value received, hereby promises to pay to, or registered assigns, the principal sum of Dollars on [if Security is to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—, and to pay interest thereon from or from the most recent Interest Payment Date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, semi-annually on and in each year, commencing , at the rate of % per annum, until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [if applicable, insert—, provided that any principal and premium, and any such installment of interest, which is overdue shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment, and such interest shall be payable on demand]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in such Indenture, be paid to the Person in whose name this Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Record Date for such interest, which shall be the or (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date. Any such interest not so punctually paid or duly provided for will forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on such Record Date and may either be paid to the Person this Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest to be fixed by the Trustee, notice whereof shall be given to Holders of Securities of this series not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date, or be paid at any time in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which the Securities of this series may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, all as more fully provided in said Indenture. [If the Security is not to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at Stated Maturity and in such case the overdue principal and any overdue premium shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue principal or premium shall be payable on demand. [Any such interest on overdue principal or premium which is not paid on demand shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest on interest shall be legally enforceable), from the date of such demand until the amount so demanded is paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue interest shall be payable on demand.]].

Payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and [any such] interest on this Security will be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in in such coin or currency of [the United States of America] as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts[; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Register].

Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Security set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.


Unless the certificate of authentication hereon has been manually executed by or on behalf of the Trustee under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof, this Security shall not be entitled to any benefit under the Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this instrument to be duly executed under its corporate seal.

 

Dated:   Energous Corporation
  By
                                                   [Title]
Attest and Countersign  
                                                     Secretary  


[Reverse of Security.]

ENERGOUS CORPORATION

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of securities of the Company (herein called the “Securities”), issued and to be issued in one or more series under an Indenture dated as of , (herein called the “Indenture,” which term shall have the meaning assigned to it in such instrument), between the Company and , as trustee (herein called the “Trustee”, which term includes any successor trustee under the Indenture), to which Indenture and all indentures supplemental thereto reference is hereby made for a statement of the respective rights, limitations or rights, duties and immunities thereunder of the Company, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities and of the terms upon which the Securities are, and are to be, authenticated and delivered. This Security is one of the series designated on the face hereof [, limited in aggregate principal amount to $ ].

[If the Security is to be subordinated, insert—The indebtedness evidenced by this Security is, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the Indenture, expressly subordinated and subject in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all Senior Indebtedness (as defined in the Indenture) of the Company. This Security is issued subject to such provisions of the Indenture, and each Holder of this Security, by accepting the same, agrees to and shall be bound by such provisions and authorizes and directs the Trustee on the Holder’s behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to acknowledge or effectuate such subordination as provided in the Indenture and appoints the Trustee such Holder’s attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.]

The Securities of this series are subject to redemption upon not less than 30 days’, and no more than 60 days, notice provided in the manner set forth in the Indenture, [(1) on in any year commencing with the year and ending with the year at the Redemption Price equal to 100% of the principal amount, and (2)] at any time [on or after], as a whole or in part, at the election of the principal the following Redemption Prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount): If redeemed [on or before , %, and if redeemed] during the 12-month period beginning of the years indicated,

 

Year

   Redemption
Price
     Year      Redemption
Price
 
        
        
        

and thereafter at a Redemption Price equal to % of the principal amount together in the case of any such redemption with accrued interest to the Redemption Date, but interest installments whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to such Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities of record at the close of business on the relevant record dates referred to on the face hereof, all as provided in the Indenture.

[If the Security is to be redeemable in part, insert—In the event of redemption of this Security in part only, a new Security or Securities of this series for the unredeemed portion hereof will be issued in the name of the Holder hereof upon the cancellation hereof.]

[If the Security is to be subject to repayment at the option of the Holder, insert—To be repaid at the option of the Holder, the Company must receive this Security, with the form of “Option to Elect Repayment” hereon duly completed, at an office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in (or at such other place of which the Company shall from time to time notify the Holder of this Security) not less than nor more than days prior to the Repayment Date. The exercise of the repayment option by the Holder shall be irrevocable.]

[If the Security is not to be subject to redemption at the option of the Company, insert—The Securities are not redeemable at the option of the Company prior to Maturity.]

[If the Security is not to be an Original Issue Discount Security, insert—If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of this series shall occur and be continuing, the principal of the Securities of this series may be declared due and payable in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture.]

The Indenture permits, with certain exceptions as therein provided, the amendment thereof and the modification of the rights and obligations of the Company and the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each series under the Indenture to be affected at any time by the Company with the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of each series to be affected.


The Indenture also contains provisions permitting the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding, on behalf of the Holders of all Securities of such series, to waive compliance by the Company with certain provisions of the Indenture and certain past defaults under the Indenture and their consequences. Any such consent or waiver by the Holder of this Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders of this Security and of any Security issued upon the registration of transfer hereof or in exchange herefor or in lieu hereof, whether or not notation of such consent of waiver is made upon this Security.

As provided in and subject to the provisions of the indenture, the Holder of this Security shall not have the right to institute any proceeding with respect to the Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee or for any other remedy thereunder, unless such Holder shall have previously given the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of this series , the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the Securities of this series at the time Outstanding shall have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default as Trustee and offered the Trustee reasonable indemnity satisfactory to it, and the Trustee shall not have received from the Holders of a majority in principal amount of Securities of this series at the time Outstanding a direction inconsistent with such request, and shall have failed to institute any such proceeding, for 60 days after receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity. The foregoing shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Holder of this Security for the enforcement of any payment of principal hereof or any premium or interest hereon on or after the respective due dates expressed herein.

No reference herein to the Indenture and no provision of this Security or of the Indenture shall alter or impair the obligation of the Company, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security at the times, place and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

[If the Security is to be in registered form, insert—As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, the transfer of this Security is registrable in the Register, upon surrender of this Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency of the Company in any place where the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security are payable, duly endorsed by, or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar duly executed by, the Holder hereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing, and, thereupon one or more new Securities of this series, of authorized denominations and for the same aggregate principal amount, will be issued to the designated transferee or transferees.]

[The Securities of this series are issuable only in registered form in denominations of $ [and any integral multiple] [or increments of $ in excess] thereof. As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, Securities of this series are exchangeable for a like aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series of a different authorized denomination, as requested by the Holder surrendering the same.]

[No service charge shall be made for any such registration of transfer or exchange, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.]

[Prior to due presentment of this Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name this Security is registered as the owner hereof for all purposes, whether or not this Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any such agent shall be affected by notice to the contrary.]

[If the Security is a Global Security, insert—“Global Security” and “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary (as hereinafter defined) for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee. “Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as the Depositary by the Company.

No holder of any beneficial interest in this Security held on its behalf by a Depositary or a nominee of such Depositary shall have any rights under the Indenture with respect to such Global Security, and such Depositary or nominee may be treated by the Company, the Trustee, and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such Global Security for all purposes whatsoever. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall impair, as between a Depositary and such holders of beneficial interests, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of the Depositary as Holder of any Security.

This Security is exchangeable, in whole but not in part, for Securities registered in the names of Persons other than the Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary only if (i) the Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for this Note or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and, in either case, a successor depositary is not appointed by the Company within 90 days, (ii) the Company in its discretion at any time determines not to have all of the Securities of this series represented by one or more Global Security or Securities and notifies the Trustee thereof, or (iii) an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the Securities of this series. If this Security is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence, it shall be exchangeable for Securities issuable in authorized denominations and registered in such names as the Depositary holding this Security shall direct. Subject to the foregoing, this Security is not exchangeable, except for a Security or Securities of the same aggregate denominations to be registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary.]


[The Indenture entitles Holders to receive annual reports with respect to the Trustee’s eligibility and qualifications to serve as Trustee by filing their names and addresses with the Trustee for that purpose within two years preceding and mailing of any such annual report.]

No recourse shall be had for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) or interest on this Security, or for any claim based hereon, or otherwise in respect hereof, or based on or in respect of the Indenture of any indenture supplemental thereto, against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, as such, past, present or future, of the Company or any successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise, all such liability being, by the acceptance hereof and as part of the consideration for the issue hereof, expressly waived and released.

All terms used in this Security which are defined in the Indenture shall have the meanings assigned to them in the Indenture.

This Security, including without limitation the obligation of the Company contained herein to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security in accordance with the terms hereof and of the Indenture, shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.

 

[Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.]

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

, as

[Authenticating Agent for] the Trustee

By

                                                             Authorized Officer
EX-4.9
Table of Contents

Exhibit 4.9

ENERGOUS CORP.

And

, as Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of,


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ARTICLE 1 - DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

1.1 DEFINITIONS

     1  

1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS

     4  

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT

     4  

1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION

     4  

ARTICLE 2 - THE SECURITIES

     5  

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES

     5  

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES

     5  

2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION

     7  

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT

     7  

2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST

     8  

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS

     8  

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE

     8  

2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES

     9  

2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES

     9  

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION

     9  

2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES

     10  

2.12. CANCELLATION

     10  

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST

     10  

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER

     10  

2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES

     10  

2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS

     11  

ARTICLE 3 - REDEMPTION

     12  

3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE

     12  

3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED

     12  

3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION

     12  

3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION

     13  

3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE

     13  

3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART

     13  

ARTICLE 4 - COVENANTS

     13  

4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES

     13  

4.2. SEC REPORTS

     14  

4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS

     14  

4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE

     14  

4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE

     14  

ARTICLE 5 - SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

     15  

5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS

     15  

5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED

     15  

ARTICLE 6 - DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     15  

6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT

     15  

6.2. ACCELERATION

     16  

6.3. REMEDIES

     16  

6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT

     17  

6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY

     17  

6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS

     17  

6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT

     17  

6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE

     18  

6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM

     18  

6.10. PRIORITIES

     18  

6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS

     18  

ARTICLE 7 - TRUSTEE

     19  

7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE

     19  

7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE

     19  

7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE

     20  

7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER

     20  

7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT

     20  

7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS

     21  

 

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Table of Contents

7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY

     21  

7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE

     21  

7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION

     22  

7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION

     22  

7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY

     22  

7.12. PAYING AGENTS

     22  

ARTICLE 8 - AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

     23  

8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS

     23  

8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS

     23  

8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT

     24  

8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS

     24  

8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     24  

8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

     25  

ARTICLE 9 - DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE

     25  

9.1. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE

     25  

9.2. LEGAL DEFEASANCE

     25  

9.3. COVENANT DEFEASANCE

     25  

9.4. CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE

     26  

9.5. DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     27  

9.6. REINSTATEMENT

     27  

9.7. MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT

     27  

9.8. MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE

     27  

ARTICLE 10 - MISCELLANEOUS

     28  

10.1. TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS

     28  

10.2. NOTICES

     28  

10.3. COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS

     29  

10.4. CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT

     29  

10.5. STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION

     29  

10.6. RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS

     29  

10.7. BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT

     29  

10.8. GOVERNING LAW

     30  

10.9. NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS

     30  

10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS

     30  

10.11. SUCCESSORS

     30  

10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS

     30  

10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.

     30  

10.14. SEVERABILITY

     30  

10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS

     30  

10.16. JUDGMENT CURRENCY

     31  

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE

 

TIA SECTION

   INDENTURE
SECTION

310(a)(1)(2)(5)

   7.10

310(a)(3)(4)

   Inapplicable

310(b)

   7.8; 7.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)(b)

   7.11

311(c)

   Inapplicable

 

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TIA SECTION

   INDENTURE
SECTION

312(a)

   2.6

312(b)(c)

   10.3

313(a)(b)

   7.6

313(c)

   7.6; 10.2

313(d)

   7.6

314(a)

   4.2; 4.4; 10.2

314(b)

   N/A

314(c)(1)(2)

   10.4; 10.5

314(c)(3)

   Inapplicable

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   10.5

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.1, 7.2

315(b)

   7.5; 10.2

315(c)

   7.1

315(d)

   7.1; 7.2

315(e)

   6.11

316(a)(last sentence)

   2.10

316(a)(1)(A)

   6.5

316(a)(1)(B)

   6.4

316(a)(2)

   8.2

316(b)

   6.7

316(c)

   8.4

317(a)(1)

   6.8

317(a)(2)

   6.9

317(b)

   2.5; 7.12

318(a)

   10.1

Note: This Cross-Reference Table shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

 

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INDENTURE, dated as of             ,    , by and between Energous Corp., a Delaware corporation, as Issuer (the “Company”) and,                                          organized under the laws of                                 , as Trustee (the “Trustee”).

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”), as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done, and the execution and delivery thereof have been in all respects duly authorized by the parties hereto.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities of a Series thereof, as follows:

ARTICLE 1 -

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

1.1 DEFINITIONS.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person which, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by or is under common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, co-registrar or agent for service of notices and demands.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any committee duly authorized to act therefor.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification which has been delivered to the Trustee.

“Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, partnership interests or any other participation, right or other interest in the nature of an equity interest in such Person or any option, warrant or other security convertible into any of the foregoing.

“Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces such party pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor and any other primary obligor on the Securities.

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be its Chief Executive Officer or its Vice President of Finance.

“Company Request” means any written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, any Vice President, its Chief Financial Officer or its Treasurer and attested to by its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered.

“Default” means any event that is, or that with the passing of time or giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

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Table of Contents

“Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, until a successor Depository shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depository” shall mean each Person who is then a Depository hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, such Persons.

“Dollars” means the currency of the United States of America.

“Euro” means the single currency of participating member states of the economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2, evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee, and bearing the legend set forth in Section 2.15(c) (or such other legend(s) as may be applied to such Securities in accordance with Section 2.2(24)).

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means the Person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.

“Indebtedness” means (without duplication), with respect to any Person, any indebtedness at any time outstanding, secured or unsecured, contingent or otherwise, which is for borrowed money (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such Person or only to a portion thereof), or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments, or representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property (excluding any balances that constitute accounts payable or trade payables, and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business), if and to the extent any of the foregoing indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP.

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time.

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Lien” means, with respect to any property or assets of any Person, any mortgage or deed of trust, pledge, hypothecation, assignment, deposit arrangement, security interest, lien, charge, easement, encumbrance, preference, priority or other security agreement or preferential arrangement of any kind or nature whatsoever on or with respect to such property or assets (including, without limitation, any capitalized lease obligation, conditional sales or other title retention agreement having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing).

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security, or an installment of principal, becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect payment or otherwise.

 

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Table of Contents

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Company, or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

“Officers’ Certificate” means, with respect to any Person, a certificate signed by the Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President or any Senior or Executive Vice President and the Chief Financial Officer or any Treasurer of such Person, that shall comply with applicable provisions of this Indenture.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel, which counsel is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government (including any agency or political subdivision thereof).

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the corporate trust department or division of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers, and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as constituted from time to time, or any successor performing substantially the same functions.

“Securities” means the securities that are issued under this Indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time pursuant to this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.

“Significant Subsidiary” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.

“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security, or such installment of principal or interest, is due and payable, and when used with respect to any other Indebtedness, means the date specified in the instrument governing such Indebtedness as the fixed date on which the principal of such Indebtedness, or any installment of interest thereon, is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” of any specified Person means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, whether now existing or hereafter organized or acquired, (i) in the case of a corporation, of which more than 50% of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors thereof is held, directly or indirectly, by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries; or (ii) in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such Person for financial statement purposes.

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Section 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture (except as provided in Section 8.3).

 

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“Trustee” means the party named as such in this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS.

The definitions of the following terms may be found in the sections indicated as follows:

 

TERM

   DEFINED IN SECTION

“Bankruptcy Law”

       6.1    

“Business Day”

       10.7  

“Covenant Defeasance”

       9.3    

“Custodian”

       6.1    

“Event of Default”

       6.1    

“Journal”

       10.15

“Judgment Currency”

       10.16

“Legal Defeasance”

       9.2    

“Legal Holiday”

       10.7  

“Market Exchange Rate”

       10.15

“New York Paying Agent”

       2.4    

“Paying Agent”

       2.4    

“Place of Payment”

       10.7  

“Registrar”

       2.4    

“Required Currency”

       10.16

“Service Agent”

       2.4    

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the portion of such provision required to be incorporated herein in order for this Indenture to be qualified under the TIA is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“Commission” means the SEC.

“Indenture securities” means the Securities.

“Indenture securityholder” means a Holder or Securityholder.

“Indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

“Indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

“Obligor on the indenture securities” means the Company.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined in the TIA by reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule have the meanings therein assigned to them.

1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it herein, whether defined expressly or by reference;

(2) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

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(3) “or” is not exclusive;

(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(5) words used herein implying any gender shall apply to each gender; and

(6) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

ARTICLE 2 -

THE SECURITIES

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is $ , , . The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, Stated Maturity, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, PROVIDED, that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2(1) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2(2) through 2.2(24)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, in each case, pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(1) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5);

(3) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;

(6) the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

(7) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

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(9) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof, and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

(10) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(11) the forms of the Securities of the Series in bearer (if to be issued outside of the United States of America) or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities);

(12) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

(13) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, including, but not limited to, the Euro, and, if such currency of denomination is a composite currency other than the Euro, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

(14) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be made;

(15) if payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

(16) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

(17) the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the Securities of the Series;

(18) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles 4 or 5 that applies to Securities of the Series;

(19) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series, any provision for the payment of additional interest or liquidated damages in connection with any Event of Default, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

(20) the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion of the Securities into or exchange of the Securities for shares of common stock, preferred stock, other debt securities or warrants for common stock, preferred stock or other securities of any kind of the Company that apply to Securities of the Series;

(21) any Trustees, depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

(22) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Company;

(23) if applicable, that the Securities of the Series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Article 9; and

(24) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 8.1, but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time, and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, however, the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

 

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2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company or an Officer and an Assistant Secretary of the Company. Each such signature may be either manual or facsimile. The Company’s seal may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or reproduced on the Securities and may be in facsimile form.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability, or cause it to have a conflict of interest with respect to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.

The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any Series of Securities (i) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”), (ii) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”) (PROVIDED that the Company shall at all times maintain a Paying Agent in the Borough of Manhattan, City of New York, State of New York (the “New York Paying Agent”), and PROVIDED, FURTHER, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register for the Securities maintained by the Registrar), and (iii) an office or agency where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register of the Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may have one or more co-registrars and one or more additional paying agents. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office, or to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee as set forth in Section 10.2. If the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate the money held by it for the payment of principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities and hold it as a separate trust fund. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, co-registrar or any other Agent without notice to any Securityholder.

 

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The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes, and may from time to time rescind such designations; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as such office of the Company. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of such designation or rescission, and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Registrar or Paying Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture that relate to such Agent. The Company shall notify the Trustee of the name and address of any such Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent, or agent for service of notices and demands, or fails to give the foregoing notice, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. The Company designates , as the New York Paying Agent, with offices at .

2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.

The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Series of Securities (whether such assets have been distributed to it by the Company or any other obligor on such Series of Securities), and the Company and the Paying Agent shall notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company (or any other obligor on such Series of Securities) in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and account for any assets disbursed, and the Trustee may, at any time during the continuance of any payment default with respect to any Series of Securities, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and to account for any assets distributed. Upon distribution to the Trustee of all assets that shall have been delivered by the Company to the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for such assets.

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities. If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee as of each regular record date for the payment of interest on the Securities of a Series and before each related Interest Payment Date, and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

When Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to register the transfer thereof, the Registrar shall register the transfer as requested if the requirements of applicable law are met, and when such Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to exchange them for an equal principal amount of other authorized denominations of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall make the exchange as requested. To permit transfers and exchanges, upon surrender of any Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency maintained pursuant to Section 2.4, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.

If Securities are issued as Global Securities, the provisions of Section 2.15 shall apply.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Registrar or a co-registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar or a co-registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

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Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company may require payment by the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation to a transfer or exchange, but this provision shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5. The Trustee shall not be required to register transfers of Securities of any Series, or to exchange Securities of any Series, for a period of 15 days before the record date for selection for redemption of such Securities. The Trustee shall not be required to exchange or register transfers of Securities of any Series called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of such Security being redeemed in part.

2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.

If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or if the Holder of a Security presents evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. An indemnity bond may be required by the Company or the Trustee that is sufficient in the reasonable judgment of the Company or the Trustee, as the case may be, to protect the Company, the Trustee or any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge such Holder for the Company’s out-of-pocket expenses in replacing a Security, including the fees and expenses of the Trustee. Every replacement Security shall constitute an original additional obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.

Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities authenticated by the Trustee, except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation and those described in this Section 2.9 as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8 (other than a mutilated Security surrendered for replacement), it ceases to be outstanding until the Company and the Trustee receive proof satisfactory to each of them that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. A mutilated Security ceases to be outstanding upon surrender of such Security and replacement thereof pursuant to Section 2.8.

If a Paying Agent holds on a Redemption Date or the Stated Maturity money sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest on, Securities payable on that date, and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders thereof pursuant to the terms of this Indenture (PROVIDED, that if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made), then on and after that date such Securities cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

A Security does not cease to be outstanding solely because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.

In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, the Securities of any Series owned by the Company or any other obligor on such Securities, or by any Affiliate of any of them, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series which the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities of such Series so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to the Securities of such Series and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of such Series, or an Affiliate of any of them.

 

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2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, temporary Securities. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form, and shall carry all rights, of definitive Securities, but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities without charge to the Holder.

2.12. CANCELLATION.

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption or registration of transfer or exchange, or for credit against any sinking fund payment, shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee or, at the direction of the Trustee, the Registrar or the Paying Agent, and no one else, shall cancel, and at the written request of the Company shall dispose of, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation. If the Company shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to this Section 2.12. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section  2.12, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture.

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.

Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 2.2 with respect to any Series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, as provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay the defaulted amounts, plus any interest payable on defaulted amounts pursuant to Section 4.1, to the Persons who are Securityholders on a subsequent special record date, which date shall be the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, or the next succeeding Business Day if such date is not a Business Day. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail or cause to be mailed to each Securityholder, with a copy to the Trustee, a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest, and interest payable on such defaulted interest, if any, to be paid.

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of each Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use one or more “CUSIP” numbers, and, if the Company does so, the Trustee shall use the CUSIP number(s) in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders, PROVIDED, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number(s) printed in the notice or on the Securities, and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and that any such redemption or exchange shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of any such numbers.

2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.

(a) A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, and the Depository for such Global Securities or Securities.

 

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(b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 and in addition thereto, if, and only if the Depository (i) at any time is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and (ii) a successor Depository is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the date the Company is so informed in writing or becomes aware of the same, the Company promptly will execute and deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of such definitive Securities (which the Company will promptly execute and deliver to the Trustee) and an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable, will authenticate and deliver definitive Securities, without charge, registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall direct in writing (pursuant to instructions from its direct and indirect participants or otherwise) in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms. Upon the exchange of a Global Security for definitive Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, as provided in this Section 2.15(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

(c) Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to, and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a Person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

(d) The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

(e) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, any Global Security shall be made to the Depository or its nominee in its capacity as the Holder thereof.

(f) Except as provided in Section 2.15(e) above, the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of any Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depository (which may be in the form of a participants’ list for such Series) with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, PROVIDED, that until the Trustee is so provided with a written statement, it may treat the Depository or any other Person in whose name a Global Security is registered as the owner of such Global Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Global Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.

Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any agent of the Company, the Registrar or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar or any agent of the Company, the Trustee or the Registrar shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

 

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ARTICLE 3 -

REDEMPTION

3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities, or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof, prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company elects to redeem all or part of such Series of Securities, it shall notify the Trustee of the Redemption Date and the principal amount of Securities to be redeemed at least 45 days (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) before the Redemption Date. Any such notice may be canceled at any time prior to notice of such redemption being mailed to any Holder, and shall thereby be void and of no effect.

3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series of Securities by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of a Series to be redeemed pro rata, by lot or by any other method that the Trustee considers fair and appropriate (unless the Company specifically directs the Trustee otherwise) and, if such Securities are listed on any securities exchange, by a method that complies with the requirements of such exchange.

The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of a Series outstanding and not previously called for redemption, and shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Security selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed at least 35 but not more than 60 days before the Redemption Date. Securities of a Series in denominations of $1,000 may be redeemed only in whole. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of a Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of a Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2(10), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption.

3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days, and no more than 60 days, before a Redemption Date, the Company shall mail, or cause to be mailed, a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed at his or her last address as the same appears on the registry books maintained by the Registrar. The notice shall identify the Securities to be redeemed and shall state:

(1) the Redemption Date;

(2) the redemption price, and that such redemption price shall become due and payable on the Redemption Date;

(3) if any Security of a Series is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security of a Series to be redeemed and that, after the Redemption Date and upon surrender of such Security of a Series, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued;

(4) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(5) that Securities of a Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price, and the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for such payment;

(6) that, unless the Company defaults in making the redemption payment, interest on the Securities of a Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on the Redemption Date, and the only remaining right of the Holders of such Securities is to receive payment of the redemption price upon surrender to the Paying Agent of the Securities redeemed;

 

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(7) if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the identification of the particular Securities of a Series (or portion thereof) to be redeemed, as well as the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be redeemed and the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be outstanding after such partial redemption.

(8) the CUSIP number, if any, printed on the Securities being redeemed; and

(9) that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at the Company’s sole expense.

3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Once the notice of redemption described in Section 3.3 is mailed, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the Redemption Date and at the redemption price, plus interest, if any, accrued to the Redemption Date. Upon surrender to the Trustee or Paying Agent, such Securities of a Series shall be paid at the redemption price, plus accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; PROVIDED, that if the Redemption Date is after a regular interest payment record date and on or prior to the next Interest Payment Date, the accrued interest shall be payable to the Holder of the redeemed Securities registered on the relevant record date, as specified by the Company in the notice to the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.1.

3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.

On or prior to the Redemption Date (but no later than 11:00 A.M. Eastern Time on such date), the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date other than Securities or portions thereof called for redemption on that date which have been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation.

On and after any Redemption Date, if money sufficient to pay the redemption price of, and accrued interest on, Securities called for redemption shall have been made available in accordance with the preceding paragraph and the Company and the Paying Agent are not prohibited from paying such moneys to Holders, the Securities called for redemption will cease to accrue interest and the only right of the Holders of such Securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price of and, subject to the proviso in Section 3.4, accrued and unpaid interest on such Securities to the Redemption Date. If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid, interest will be paid, from the Redemption Date until such redemption payment is made, on the unpaid principal of the Security and any interest or premium, if any, not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case, at the rate and in the manner provided in the Securities.

3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.

Upon surrender of a Security of a Series that is redeemed in part, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, for a Holder a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE 4 -

COVENANTS

4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.

The Company shall pay the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, each Series of Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in such Securities and this Indenture.

An installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Trustee or Paying Agent holds on that date money designated for and sufficient to pay such installment and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or otherwise.

 

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The Company shall pay interest on overdue principal, and overdue interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate specified in the Series of Securities.

4.2. SEC REPORTS.

The Company will deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after the filing of the same with the SEC, copies of the quarterly and annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports, if any, which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that each such report or document will be deemed to be so delivered to the Trustee if the Company files such report or document with the SEC through the SEC’s EDGAR database no later than the time such report or document is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. Notwithstanding that the Company may not be subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the Company will file with the SEC, to the extent permitted, and provide the Trustee with, such quarterly and annual reports and such information, documents and other reports specified in Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company will also comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).

4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead (as a defense or otherwise) or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension, usury or other law which would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of, and/or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities as contemplated herein, wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, or which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company hereby expressly waives (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.

(a) The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate which complies with TIA Section 314(a)(4) stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during such fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his or her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and that there is no default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to the best of his or her knowledge no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities is prohibited, or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

(b) (i) If any Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or (ii) if any Holder seeks to exercise any remedy hereunder with respect to a claimed Default under this Indenture or the Securities, within five Business Days after the Company becoming aware of such occurrence the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying such event, notice or other action and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE.

Subject to Article 5, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence, in accordance with the organizational documents (as the same may be amended from time to time) of the Company and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or its corporate existence, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

 

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ARTICLE 5 -

SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.

(a) The Company will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets (as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in one transaction or a series of related transactions), to any Person or Persons, unless at the time of and after giving effect thereto (i) either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving Person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the properties and assets of the Company are transferred (any such surviving Person or transferee Person being the “Surviving Entity”) shall be a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the Securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the Securities of each Series and this Indenture, and in each case, this Indenture shall remain in full force and effect; and (ii) immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any Indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

(b) In connection with any consolidation, merger or transfer of assets contemplated by this Section 5.1, the Company shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer, and the supplemental indenture in respect thereto, comply with this Section 5.1, and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction or transactions have been complied with.

5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.

Upon any consolidation, merger or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1 above, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company is merged or to which such transfer is made, shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor corporation had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter (except with respect to any such transfer which is a lease) the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE 6 -

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

“Events of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(1) there is a default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same becomes due and payable at Maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;

(2) there is a default in the payment of any interest on any Security of a Series when the same becomes due and payable, and the Default continues for a period of 30 days;

(3) the Company defaults in the observance or performance of any other covenant in the Securities of a Series or in this Indenture for 60 days after written notice from the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding, which notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;

 

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(4) the Company or any Significant Subsidiary pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(A) commences a voluntary case,

(B) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(C) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

(D) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(E) generally is not paying its debts as they become due;

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(A) is for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary in an involuntary case;

(B) appoints a Custodian of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, or for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary; or

(C) orders the liquidation of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days; or

(6) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2(19).

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

The Trustee may withhold notice of any Default (except in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities) to the Holders of the Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 7.5. When a Default is cured, it ceases to exist.

6.2. ACCELERATION.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding (other than an Event of Default arising under Section 6.1(4) or (5)) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by written notice to the Company, or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may declare that the entire principal amount of all the Securities of that Series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable, in which case such amounts shall become immediately due and payable; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that after such acceleration but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the Trustee, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may rescind and annul such acceleration and its consequences if (i) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, interest or premium, if any, that has become due solely because of the acceleration, have been cured or waived, (ii) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid and (iii) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereto. In case an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all of the Securities of that Series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the Holders of the Securities of that Series.

6.3. REMEDIES.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of the principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of that Series, or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of that Series or this Indenture.

 

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The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities of that Series or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Securityholder in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in the Event of Default. No remedy is exclusive of any other remedy. All available remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.

6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding have the right to waive any existing Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series or compliance with any provision of this Indenture (with respect to such Series) or the Securities of such Series. Upon any such waiver, such Default with respect to such Series shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default with respect to such Series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto. This Section 6.4 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee by this Indenture with respect to such Series. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, or that the Trustee determines may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Securityholder, or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability; PROVIDED, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction. This Section 6.5 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS.

Subject to Section 6.7, a Securityholder may not institute any proceeding or pursue any remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of a Series unless:

(1) the Holder gives to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(2) the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;

(3) such Holder or Holders offer to the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(4) the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding.

A Securityholder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Securityholder, or to obtain a preference or priority over another Securityholder.

6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security of a Series to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Security of such Series on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security of such Series, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, is absolute and unconditional, and shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the Holder.

 

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6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.

If an Event of Default in payment of principal, interest or premium, if any, specified in Section 6.1(1) or (2) with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities of that Series) for the whole amount of unpaid principal and premium, if any, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, together with interest on overdue principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest, in each case at the rate then borne by the Securities of that Series, and such further amounts as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, as set forth in Section 7.7.

6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.

The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents, and take other actions (including sitting on a committee of creditors), as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), any of their respective creditors or any of their respective property, and the Trustee shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute the same after deduction of its charges and expenses to the extent that any such charges and expenses are not paid out of the estate in any such proceedings, and any custodian in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Securityholder to make such payments to the Trustee, and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of a Series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceedings.

6.10. PRIORITIES.

If the Trustee collects any money pursuant to this Article 6, it shall pay out the money in the following order:

FIRST: to the Trustee for amounts due under Section 7.7;

SECOND: to Securityholders for amounts then due and unpaid for the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities in respect of which, or for the benefit of which, such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities; for principal and any premium and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: to the Company.

The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Securityholders pursuant to this Section 6.10. At least 15 days before such record date, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a notice that states the record date, the payment date and amount to be paid.

6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.

In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.11 does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.7 or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the Securities of a Series then outstanding.

 

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ARTICLE 7 -

TRUSTEE

7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent Person would exercise or use under the same circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(1) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no covenants or obligations shall be implied in this Indenture against the Trustee.

(2) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture, but, in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section 7.1.

(2) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(3) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Sections 6.2 and 6.5.

(d) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds, or otherwise incur any financial liability, in the performance of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

(e) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this Section 7.1 shall govern every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee.

(f) The Trustee and Paying Agent shall not be liable for interest on any money received by either of them, except as the Trustee and Paying Agent may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by the law.

(g) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections, immunities and standard of care set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) and (f) of this Section 7.1 and in Section  7.2 with respect to the Trustee.

7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

(a) Subject to Section 7.1:

(1) The Trustee may rely on, and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon, any document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper Person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(2) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel, or both, which shall conform to the provisions of Section 10.5. The Trustee shall be protected and shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion.

 

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(3) The Trustee may act through agents and attorneys, and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed by it with due care.

(4) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it reasonably believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.

(5) The Trustee may consult with counsel reasonably acceptable to the Trustee, which may be counsel to the Company, and the advice or opinion of such counsel as to matters of law shall be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken, omitted or suffered by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice or opinion of such counsel.

(6) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.

(7) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any fact or matter (including, without limitation, a Default or Event of Default) unless such fact or matter is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee.

(8) Unless otherwise expressly provided herein or in the Securities of a Series or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, the Trustee shall not have any responsibility with respect to reports, notices, certificates or other documents filed with it hereunder, except to make them available for inspection, at reasonable times, by Securityholders, it being understood that delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (except as set forth in Section 4.4).

7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities, and may make loans to, accept deposits from, perform services for or otherwise deal with the Company, or any Affiliate thereof, with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee, however, shall be subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities (except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture and authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder), and the Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the sale of Securities or any money paid to the Company pursuant to the terms of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its certificates of authentication.

7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT.

If a Default or an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series, and if it is known to the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of the Default or the Event of Default, as the case may be, within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default (except if such Default or Event of Default has been validly cured or waived before the giving of such notice). Except in the case of a Default or an Event of Default in payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as the Board of Directors of the Trustee, the executive committee or any trust committee of such board and/or its Responsible Officers in good faith determine(s) that withholding the notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of that Series.

 

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7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.

If and to the extent required by the TIA, within 60 days after April 1 of each year, commencing the April 1 following the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder a brief report dated as of such April 1 that complies with TIA Section 313(a). The Trustee also shall comply with TIA Sections 313(b) and 313(c).

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders shall be filed with the SEC and any stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when the Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange or any delisting thereof, and the Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 313(d).

7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time reasonable compensation for its services. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee within 45 days after receipt of request for all reasonable out-of-pocket disbursements and expenses incurred or made by it in connection with its duties under this Indenture, including the reasonable compensation, disbursements and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee for, and hold it harmless against, any and all loss or liability incurred by it in connection with the acceptance or performance of its duties under this Indenture including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim asserted against the Trustee for which it may seek indemnity.

The failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not however relieve the Company of its obligations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company need not reimburse the Trustee for any expense or indemnify it against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee through its negligence or bad faith. To secure the payment obligations of the Company in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee except such money or property held in trust to pay the principal of, interest and premium, if any, on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

For purposes of this Section 7.7, the term “Trustee” shall include any trustee appointed pursuant to this Article 7.

7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company in writing at least 90 days in advance of such resignation.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by notifying the removed Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect to that Series with the consent of the Company, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series at its election if:

(1) the Trustee fails to comply with, or ceases to be eligible under, Section 7.10;

(2) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent, or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee, under any Bankruptcy Law;

(3) a Custodian or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(4) the Trustee otherwise becomes incapable of acting.

 

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(5) If the Trustee resigns or is removed, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee, with respect to any Series of Securities for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint, by Board Resolution, a successor Trustee.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

If the Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series fails to comply with Section 7.10, any Securityholder of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately following such delivery, (i) the retiring Trustee with respect to one or more Series shall, subject to its rights under Section 7.7, transfer all property held by it as Trustee with respect to such Series to the successor Trustee, (ii) the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and (iii) the successor Trustee with respect to such Series shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series shall mail notice of its succession to each Securityholder of such Series.

7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.

If the Trustee, or any Agent, consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust assets to, another corporation, subject to Section 7.10, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee or Agent, as the case may be.

7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Sections 310(a)(1), (2) and (5) in every respect. The Trustee (or in the case of a Trustee that is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the related bank holding company) shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $100,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b), including the provision in Section 310(b)(1). In addition, if the Trustee is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the Trustee, independently of such bank holding company, shall meet the capital requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(2). If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7.10, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Article 7.

7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.

The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated therein.

7.12. PAYING AGENTS.

The Company shall cause each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to it and the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 7.12:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as agent for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any obligor on the Securities) in trust for the benefit of Holders of the Securities or the Trustee;

(2) that it will at any time during the continuance of any Event of Default, upon written request from the Trustee, deliver to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by it together with a full accounting thereof; and

(3) that it will give the Trustee written notice within three Business Days after any failure of the Company (or by any obligor on the Securities) in the payment of any installment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same shall be due and payable.

 

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ARTICLE 8 -

AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without notice to or consent of any Securityholder:

(1) to comply with Section 5.1;

(2) to provide for certificated Securities in addition to uncertificated Securities;

(3) to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the TIA;

(4) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to make any other change herein or in the Securities that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(5) to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture; or

(6) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series, and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any supplemental indenture authorized or permitted by the terms of this Indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which adversely affects its own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture.

8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

(a) The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series with the written consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series affected by such amendment or supplement without notice to any Securityholder. The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each such Series affected by such amendment or supplement may waive compliance by the Company in a particular instance with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such Series without notice to any Securityholder. Subject to Section 8.4, without the consent of each Securityholder affected, however, an amendment, supplement or waiver may not:

(1) reduce the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver to this Indenture or the Securities;

(2) reduce the rate of, or change the time for payment of, interest on any Security;

(3) reduce the principal, or change the Stated Maturity, of any Security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(4) make any Security payable in money other than that stated in the Security;

(5) change the amount or time of any payment required by the Securities, or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the Securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

(6) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

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(7) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, or change any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any Securities;

(8) make any changes in Section 6.6 or this Section 8.2, except to increase any percentage of Securities the Holders of which must consent to any matter; or

(9) take any other action otherwise prohibited by this Indenture to be taken without the consent of each Holder affected thereby.

(b) Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the receipt by the Trustee of evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee of the consent of the Securityholders as aforesaid and of the documents described in Section 8.6, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture, unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

(c) It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders under this section to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

After an amendment or supplement under this Section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to Securityholders a notice briefly describing the amendment or supplement. Any failure of the Company to mail any such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any supplemental indenture.

8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Every amendment to, or supplement of, this Indenture or the Securities shall comply with the TIA as then in effect.

8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.

Until an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent conclusive and binding upon such Holder and every subsequent Holder of the same Security or portion thereof, and of any Security issued upon the transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in place thereof, even if notation of the consent is not made on any such Security. Any such Holder or subsequent Holder, however, may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security, if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to consent to any amendment, supplement or waiver, which record date shall be at least 30 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only such Persons, shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, supplement or waiver, or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date.

After an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, it shall bind every Securityholder, unless it makes a change described in any of clauses (1) through (9) of Section 8.2. In that case, the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security; PROVIDED, that any such waiver shall not impair or affect the right of any Holder to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates without the consent of such Holder.

8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.

If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security of any Series, the Trustee may request the Holder of such Security to deliver it to the Trustee. In such case, the Trustee shall place an appropriate notation on such Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder. Alternatively, the Company, in exchange for such Security, may issue, and the Trustee shall authenticate, a new security that reflects the changed terms. Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, supplement or waiver.

 

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8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

The Trustee shall sign any amendment, supplement or waiver authorized pursuant to this Article 8 if the amendment, supplement or waiver does not adversely affect the rights, duties, liabilities or immunities of the Trustee. If it does, the Trustee may, but need not, sign it. In signing or refusing to sign such amendment, supplement or waiver the Trustee shall be entitled to receive and, subject to Section 7.1, shall be fully protected in relying upon an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that such amendment, supplement or waiver is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Company may not sign an amendment or supplement until the Board of Directors of the Company approves it.

ARTICLE 9 -

DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE

9.1. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.

The Company may terminate its obligations under the Securities of any Series and this Indenture with respect to such Series, except the obligations referred to in the last paragraph of this Section 9.1, if there shall have been canceled by the Trustee, or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than any Securities of such Series that are asserted to have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced as provided in Section 2.8) and the Company has paid all sums payable by it hereunder or deposited all required sums with the Trustee.

After such delivery the Trustee upon request shall acknowledge in a writing prepared by or on behalf of the Company the discharge of the Company’s obligations under the Securities of such Series and this Indenture, except for those surviving obligations specified below.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company in Sections 7.7, 9.5 and 9.6 shall survive.

9.2. LEGAL DEFEASANCE.

The Company may at its option, by Board Resolution, be discharged from its obligations with respect to the Securities of any Series on the date upon which the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 below are satisfied (hereinafter, “Legal Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Legal Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the Securities of such Series and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, subject to Section 9.6, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same, as are delivered to it by the Company), except for the following, which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (A) the rights of Holders of outstanding Securities of such Series to receive solely from the trust funds described in Section 9.4 and as more fully set forth in such section, payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of such Series when such payments are due, (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such Series under Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder (including claims of, or payments to, the Trustee under or pursuant to Section 7.7) and (D) this Article 9. Subject to compliance with this Article 9, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 9.2 with respect to the Securities of any Series notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section  9.3 below with respect to the Securities of such Series.

9.3. COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

At the option of the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, the Company shall be released from its obligations with respect to the outstanding Securities of any Series under Sections 4.2 through 4.5, inclusive, and Section 5.1, with respect to the outstanding Securities of such Series, on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 are satisfied (hereinafter, “Covenant Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such

 

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specified section or portion thereof, whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such specified Section or portion thereof or by reason of any reference in any such specified section or portion thereof to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and the Securities of any Series shall be unaffected thereby.

9.4. CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

The following shall be the conditions to application of Section 9.2 or Section 9.3 to the outstanding Securities of a Series:

(1) the Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.10 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this Article 9 applicable to it) as funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, the principal of, and accrued interest and premium, if any, on, the outstanding Securities of such Series at the Stated Maturity of such principal, interest or premium, if any, or on dates for payment and redemption of such principal, interest and premium, if any, selected in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of the Securities of such Series;

(2) no Event of Default or Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit, or shall have occurred and be continuing at any time during the period ending on the 91st day after the date of such deposit or, if longer, ending on the day following the expiration of the longest preference period under any Bankruptcy Law applicable to the Company in respect of such deposit as specified in the Opinion of Counsel identified in paragraph (8) below (it being understood that this condition shall not be deemed satisfied until the expiration of such period);

(3) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not cause the Trustee to have a conflicting interest for purposes of the TIA with respect to any securities of the Company;

(4) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(5) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that, as a result of such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, neither the trust nor the Trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

(6) in the case of an election under Section 9.2, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that or (ii) there has been a change in any applicable Federal income tax law with the effect that, and such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series or Persons in their positions will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

(7) in the case of an election under Section 9.3, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance, and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

(8) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Article 9 relating to either the Legal Defeasance under Section 9.2 or the Covenant Defeasance under Section 9.3 (as the case may be) have been complied with;

 

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(9) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit under clause (1) was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any creditors of the Company or others; and

(10) the Company shall have paid, or duly provided for payment under terms mutually satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee, all amounts then due to the Trustee pursuant to Section 7.7.

9.5. DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

All money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 9.4 in respect of the outstanding Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal, accrued interest and premium, if any, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 9.4 or the principal, interest and premium, if any, received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the outstanding Securities.

Anything in this Article 9 to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to payment of any of its outstanding fees and expenses, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee as provided in Section 9.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

9.6. REINSTATEMENT.

If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article 9 until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations, as the case may be, in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of, or accrued interest or premium, if any, on, any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

9.7. MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, all moneys then held by any Paying Agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee, or, if sufficient moneys have been deposited pursuant to Section 9.1, to the Company, and thereupon such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

9.8. MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE.

Any moneys deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent or then held by the Company in trust for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the Holder of such Security for two years after the date upon which the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Security shall have respectively become due and payable shall be repaid to the Company upon Company Request, or if such moneys are then held by the Company in trust, such moneys shall be released from such trust; and the Holder of such Security entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look

 

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only to the Company for the payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money shall thereupon cease; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Trustee or any such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may, at the expense of the Company, either mail to each Securityholder affected, at the address shown in the register of the Securities maintained by the Registrar, or cause to be published once a week for two successive weeks, in a newspaper published in the English language, customarily published each Business Day and of general circulation in the City of New York, New York, a notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such mailing or publication, any unclaimed balance of such moneys then remaining will be repaid to the Company. After payment to the Company or the release of any money held in trust by the Company, Securityholders entitled to the money must look only to the Company for payment as general creditors, unless applicable abandoned property law designates another Person.

ARTICLE 10 -

MISCELLANEOUS

10.1. TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS.

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision which is required to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, the required provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the TIA which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

10.2. NOTICES.

Any notice or communication shall be given in writing and delivered in Person, sent by facsimile (and receipt confirmed by telephone or electronic transmission report), delivered by commercial courier service or mailed by first-class mail, postage prepaid, addressed as follows:

If to the Company:

Energous Corp.

2590 North First Street, Suite 210

San Jose, California 95134

Attention: Chief Financial Officer

Copy to:

Fenwick & West LLP

801 California Street

Mountain View, California 94041

Attention: Horace Nash

If to the Trustee:

The Company or the Trustee by written notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications. Any notice or communication to the Company or the Trustee shall be deemed to have been given or made as of the date so delivered if personally delivered; when receipt is confirmed by telephone or electronic transmission report, if sent by facsimile; and three Business Days after mailing if sent by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid (except that a notice of change of address shall not be deemed to have been given until actually received by the addressee).

Any notice or communication mailed to a Securityholder shall be mailed to such Securityholder by first-class mail, postage prepaid, at such Securityholder’s address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to mail, or any defect in, a notice or communication to a Securityholder shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders. If a notice or communication to a Securityholder is mailed in the manner provided above, it shall be deemed duly given, three Business Days after such mailing, whether or not the addressee receives it.

 

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In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service, or by reason of any other cause, it shall be impossible to mail any notice as required by this Indenture, then such method of notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient mailing of such notice.

In the case of Global Securities, notices or communications to be given to Securityholders shall be given to the Depository, in accordance with its applicable policies as in effect from time to time.

In addition to the manner provided for in the foregoing provisions, notices or communications to Securityholders shall be given by the Company by release made to Reuters Economic Services and Bloomberg Business News.

10.3. COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS.

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or any other Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

10.4. CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(1) an Officers’ Certificate (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(2) an Opinion of Counsel (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

10.5. STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION.

Each certificate and opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than pursuant to Section 4.4) shall include:

(1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, it or he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable it or him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such covenant or condition has been complied with.

10.6. RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS.

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at meetings of Securityholders. The Registrar and Paying Agent may make reasonable rules for their functions.

10.7. BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT.

A “Business Day” is a day that is not a Legal Holiday. A “Legal Holiday” is a Saturday, a Sunday, a federally-recognized holiday or a day on which banking institutions are not authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to be open in the State of New York.

If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a Place of Payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period. “Place of Payment” means the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of a Series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 2.2. If the regular record date is a Legal Holiday, the record date shall not be affected.

 

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10.8. GOVERNING LAW.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, AS APPLIED TO CONTRACTS MADE AND PERFORMED WITHIN THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW.

10.9. NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS.

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan, security or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary thereof. No such indenture, loan, security or debt agreement may be used to interpret this Indenture.

10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS.

A director, officer, employee, stockholder or incorporator, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. Such waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of the Securities.

10.11. SUCCESSORS.

All covenants and agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind the Company’s successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. All agreements of the Trustee, any additional trustee and any Paying Agents in this Indenture shall bind their respective successors and assigns.

10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS.

The parties may sign multiple counterparts of this Indenture. Each signed counterpart shall be deemed an original, but all of them together represent one and the same agreement.

10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.

The table of contents, cross-reference sheet and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

10.14. SEVERABILITY.

Each provision of this Indenture shall be considered separable, and if for any reason any provision which is not essential to the effectuation of the basic purpose of this Indenture or the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby, and a Holder shall have no claim therefor against any party hereto.

10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including Euros), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 10.15, “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, in the case of Euros, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European

 

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Union (such publication or any successor publication, the “Journal”). If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, in its sole discretion and without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of Euros, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in New York City or in the country of issue of the currency in question or, in the case of Euros, in Luxembourg or such other quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange as the Trustee, upon consultation with the Company, shall deem appropriate. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in the Trustee’s sole discretion, and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.

10.16. JUDGMENT CURRENCY.

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, or other amount on, the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, in which instance, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)) in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

[REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, and their respective corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested, all as of the day and year first above written.

 

ENERGOUS CORP.
By:  
  Name:
  Title:
[Name of Trustee]
By:  
  Name:
  Title:
By:  
  Name:
  Title:

 

32

EX-5.1

EXHIBIT 5.1

 

LOGO

SILICON VALLEY     801 CALIFORNIA STREET     MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94041

TEL: 650.988.8500     FAX: 650.938.5200     WWW.FENWICK.COM

August 9, 2018

Energous Corporation

3590 North First Street, Suite 210

San Jose, CA 95134

Ladies and Gentlemen:

At your request, we have examined the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed by Energous Corporation, a Delaware corporation (the “Company”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on August 9, 2018 (the “Registration Statement”) in connection with the registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), of the offering and sale from time to time of (i) shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.00001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), (ii) shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.00001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”), (iii) one or more series of debt securities (the “Debt Securities”) issuable pursuant to an indenture (the “Indenture”) by and between the Company and a financial institution to be identified therein as trustee (the “Trustee”), and/or (iv) warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock and/or Debt Securities (the “Warrants”), having an aggregate public offering price of up to $75,000,000. The Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, the Debt Securities and the Warrants are collectively referred to herein as the “Securities.” The Securities may be sold from time to time by the Company or selling securityholders to be named in a prospectus supplement as set forth in the Registration Statement, the prospectus contained within the Registration Statement (the “Prospectus”) and supplements to the Prospectus.

In connection with our opinion, we have examined such matters of fact as we have deemed necessary, which included examination of originals or copies of: the Company’s current Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws (collectively, the “Charter Documents”), the Registration Statement and the exhibits thereto; the Prospectus; certain corporate proceedings of the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”), the committee or the committees of the Board and the Company’s stockholders relating to adoption or approval of the Company Charter Documents, the filing of the Registration Statement and the registration of the Securities under the Securities Act and documents (including a report from the Company’s transfer agent) regarding the Company’s outstanding and reserved capital stock and other securities and such other documents as we have deemed advisable, and we have examined such questions of law as we have considered necessary.

In our examination of documents for purposes of this opinion, we have assumed, and express no opinion as to, the authenticity and completeness of all documents submitted to us as originals, the genuineness of signatures on documents reviewed by us, the conformity to originals and the completeness of all documents submitted to us as copies, the legal capacity of all parties executing any documents (other


than the Company), the lack of any undisclosed termination or modification or waiver of any document, the absence of any extrinsic agreements or documents that might change or affect the interpretation or terms of documents, and the due authorization, execution and delivery of all documents by each party thereto other than the Company. In determining the good standing of the Company, we have relied solely upon a Certificate of Good Standing dated August 9, 2018 issued by the Delaware Secretary of State with respect to the Company.

We also have assumed that any certificates or instruments representing the Securities will be, when issued, properly signed by authorized officers of the Company or their agents, and, in the case of Debt Securities, properly authenticated in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and delivered to the intended recipients with the intent that the Company be bound thereby. We also have assumed that the Indenture at the time of execution, authentication, issuance and delivery of the Debt Securities will be a valid and legally binding obligation of the Trustee.

We render this opinion only with respect to, and express no opinion herein concerning the application or effect of the laws of any jurisdiction other than (i) the existing federal laws of the United States of America, (ii) the existing laws of the State of California, (iii) the Delaware General Corporation Law and reported judicial decisions relating thereto and (iv) solely with respect to whether or not the Debt Securities are the valid and binding obligations of the Company, the existing laws of the state of New York. To the extent that any Warrant Agreement (as defined below) is governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the state of California, our opinion expressed below assumes that California law will apply, without regard to any interpretation or construction that might be indicated by the laws stated as governing any such Warrant Agreement and that the Warrant Agreement will be entered into in the state of New York or California. Further, we have assumed that the Company will be in good standing in the states of Delaware, New York and California as of the date the Company enters into the Indenture and/or Warrant Agreement.

In connection with our opinions expressed below, we have assumed that (i) at or prior to the time of the delivery of any of the Securities, there will not have occurred any change in the law or the facts affecting the validity or enforceability of the Securities, (ii) if any Debt Securities are issued, such Debt Securities will only be issued pursuant to the Indenture in the form filed with the Registration Statement as an exhibit, that there will not have occurred any change in law affecting the enforceability of the Debt Securities, and that the Indenture will be entered into in the state of New York or California, (iii) all applicable Company covenants restricting the issuance of Debt Securities will have been waived, (iv) the Registration Statement and any amendments (including any necessary post-effective amendments) will have been declared effective under the Securities Act and (v) at the time of the offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, no stop order suspending the Registration Statement’s effectiveness will have been issued and remain in effect. We also have assumed that the terms of any Debt Securities to be established subsequent to the date hereof, the issuance and delivery of Securities subsequent to the date hereof and the compliance by the Company with the terms of such Securities will not violate any applicable law (including, without limitation, any law relating to usury) or result in a violation of any provision of any instrument or agreement then binding upon the Company or any restriction imposed by any court or governmental body having jurisdiction over the Company.

This opinion is qualified by, and is subject to, and we render no opinion with respect to, the following limitations and exceptions to the enforceability of the Debt Securities:

 

  (1)

The effect of the laws of bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, arrangement, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance, assignment for the benefit of creditors and other similar laws now or hereinafter in effect relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, including the effect of statutory or other laws regarding fraudulent transfers or preferential transfers.


  (2)

The effect of general principles of equity and similar principles, including, without limitation, concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, public policy and unconscionability and the possible unavailability of specific performance, injunctive relief, or other equitable remedies, regardless of whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law.

 

  (3)

The effect of laws relating to usury or permissible rates of interest for loans, forbearances or the use of money.

We express no opinion regarding the effectiveness of any waiver or stay, extension or usury laws, or of unknown future rights. Further, we express no opinion regarding the effect of provisions relating to indemnification, exculpation or contribution to the extent such provisions may be held unenforceable as contrary to federal or state securities laws.

The Company has informed us that the Company intends to issue, and/or selling securityholders to be named in a prospectus supplement intend to resell, the Securities from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis. This opinion is limited to the laws, including the rules and regulations, as in effect on the date hereof. We are basing this opinion on our understanding that, prior to issuing or reselling any Securities in connection with the Registration Statement, the Company or selling securityholders will advise us in writing of the terms thereof and other information material thereto, will afford us an opportunity to review the operative documents pursuant to which such Securities are to be issued and/or resold (including the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the applicable supplement to the Prospectus, as then in effect) and will file such supplement or amendment to this opinion (if any) as we may reasonably consider necessary or appropriate with respect to such Securities. However, we undertake no responsibility to monitor the Company’s future compliance with applicable laws, rules or regulations of the Commission or other governmental body. In particular, we assume that the Company will obtain any required approvals of the Board or stockholders required by the laws of the State of Delaware and the Charter Documents, or if necessary because the Company does not have a sufficient number of authorized but unissued and unreserved shares of capital stock at the time of issuance. We also assume the Company will timely file any and all supplements to the Registration Statement and Prospectus as are necessary to comply with applicable laws in effect from time to time and duly amend its Restated Certificate to increase the authorized number of shares of its capital stock if the number of such shares to be sold pursuant to the Registration Statement would cause the Company to issue more shares than it has authorized.

Based upon the foregoing, we are of the following opinion:

 

  1.

With respect to the shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance of and the terms of the offering of the shares of Common Stock and related matters have been duly authorized by appropriate corporate action of the Board and, if required, the stockholders of the Company and (ii) if required, certificates representing the shares of Common Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered either (a) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of warrants to purchase Common Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (not less than the par value of the Common Stock) provided for therein or (b) upon conversion or exercise of any other security of the Company, in accordance with the terms of such security or the instrument governing such security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board (not less than the par value of the Common Stock), then such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.


  2.

With respect to any particular series of shares of Preferred Stock registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of the shares of Preferred Stock, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, including the adoption of a certificate of designation relating to such Preferred Stock conforming to the Company’s Restated Certificate and Restated Bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law (a “Certificate”) and the filing of the Certificate with the Delaware Secretary of State, have been duly authorized by appropriate corporate action of the Board and, if required, the stockholders of the Company and (ii) if required, certificates representing the shares of Preferred Stock have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered either (a) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of warrants to purchase Preferred Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (not less than the par value of the Preferred Stock) provided for therein or (b) upon conversion or exercise of any other security of the Company, in accordance with the terms of such security or the instrument governing such security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board (not less than the par value of the Preferred Stock), then such shares of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

  3.

With respect to any Debt Securities registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance of the Debt Securities has been duly authorized by appropriate corporate action of the Board and, if required, the stockholders of the Company, (ii) an Indenture relating to such Debt Securities in the form filed with the Registration Statement as an exhibit has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by each of the Company and the Trustee, (iii) the form and terms of the Debt Securities have been duly established in accordance with the Indenture pursuant to resolutions duly adopted by the Board and as set forth in an officer’s certificate or supplemental indenture duly authorized by the Board and duly executed by an authorized officer of the Company and (iv) instruments representing such Debt Securities have been duly executed and authenticated in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and any supplement thereto, and issued, sold and delivered in the manner and for the consideration approved by the Board and stated in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any prospectus supplement relating thereto (as amended as of the date of such issuance, sale and delivery) and any applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, then the Debt Securities will be validly issued and will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

 

  4.

With respect to any Warrants registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, when (i) the issuance and terms of such Warrants, the terms, execution and delivery of the warrant agreement relating to the Warrants (“Warrant Agreement”), the terms of the offering thereof and related matters have been duly authorized by appropriate corporate action of the Board and, if required, the stockholders of the Company, (ii) the Warrant Agreement has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered and (iii) such Warrants have been duly executed, issued and delivered by duly authorized officers of the Company in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Warrant Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Board, upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein, such Warrants will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.


We consent to the use of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and further consent to all references to us, if any, in the Registration Statement, the prospectus constituting a part thereof and any amendments thereto.

This opinion is intended solely for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Securities subject to the Registration Statement and is not to be relied upon for any other purpose. This opinion is rendered as of the date first written above and based solely on our understanding of facts in existence as of such date after the aforementioned examination. We assume no obligation to advise you of any fact, circumstance, event or change in the law or the facts that may hereafter be brought to our attention whether or not such occurrence would affect or modify any of the opinions expressed herein.

Very truly yours,

FENWICK & WEST LLP

/s/ Fenwick & West LLP

EX-12.1

Exhibit 12.1

Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

 

     Year Ended December 31,     Six Months Ended  
     2014     2015     2016     2017     June 30, 2018  

Determination of earnings

          

Income (loss) before income taxes

     (45,603,110     (27,561,702     (45,817,394     (49,376,875     (25,741,828

Fixed Charges

     —         —         —         —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total income (loss)

   $ (45,603,110   $ (27,561,702   $ (45,817,394   $ (49,376,875   $ (25,741,828
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Fixed charges:

          

N/A

     —         —         —         —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total fixed charges

     —         —         —         —         —    

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     N/A       N/A       N/A       N/A       N/A  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Deficiency) excess of earnings to cover fixed charges

   $ (45,603,110   $ (27,561,702   $ (45,817,394   $ (49,376,875   $ (25,741,828
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
EX-23.1

Exhibit 23.1

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM’S CONSENT

We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement of Energous Corporation on Form S-3 of our report dated March 16, 2018, with respect to our audits of the financial statements of Energous Corporation as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 appearing in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Energous Corporation for the year ended December 31, 2017. We also consent to the reference to our firm under the heading “Experts” in the Prospectus, which is part of the Registration Statement.

 

/s/ Marcum LLP

 

Melville, NY

August 9, 2018