ECYT: Endocyte Analysis and Research Report
2018-08-13 - by Asif , Contributing Analyst - 156 views
Business and Organization
Endocyte, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company and leader in developing targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer. The Company uses drug conjugation technology to create novel therapeutics and companion imaging agents for personalized targeted therapies. The agents actively target receptors that are over-expressed on diseased cells relative to healthy cells, such as prostate specific membrane antigen (“PSMA”) in prostate cancer. This targeted approach is designed to safely enable the delivery of highly potent drug payloads. The companion imaging agents are designed to identify patients whose disease over-expresses the target of the therapy and who are therefore more likely to benefit from treatment.
In September 2017, the Company entered into a Development and License Agreement (the “License Agreement”) with ABX advanced biochemical compounds – Biomedizinische Forschungsreagenzien GmbH (“ABX”), pursuant to which the Company acquired exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize PSMA-617 agents, including the product candidate known as 177Lu-PSMA-617, a radioligand therapeutic (“RLT”). Following a successful End of Phase 2 meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the Company finalized the phase 3 VISION trial design and registration plan for 177Lu-PSMA-617. In the three months ended June 30, 2018, the Company initiated enrollment in the VISION trial, an international, prospective, open-label, multicenter, randomized phase 3 study of 177Lu-PSMA-617 in up to 750 patients with progressive PSMA-positive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (“mCRPC”) who have received at least one novel androgen axis drug (“NAAD”) and at least one taxane regimen. The trial will include two interim assessments of efficacy, which could potentially lead to an early approval for 177Lu-PSMA-617. On October 2, 2017, the Company announced its plan to primarily focus its resources on the development of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and on a targeted effort to generate proof-of-concept data for the EC17 adaptor-controlled chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (“EC17/CAR T-cell”) program, and to explore out-licensing opportunities for all other development programs.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses represent costs associated with the ongoing development of novel therapeutics and companion imaging agents for personalized targeted therapies and include salaries and employee benefits, supplies, facility costs related to research activities, and expenses for clinical trials. The Company records accruals for clinical trial expenses based on the estimated amount of work completed. The Company monitors patient enrollment levels and related activities to the extent possible through internal reviews, correspondence, and discussions with research organizations. In the event that a clinical trial is terminated early, the Company records, in the period of termination, an accrual for the estimated remaining costs to complete and close out the trial pursuant to ASC Topic 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations, as a terminated trial does not provide any future economic benefit to the Company. See Note 10 – Restructuring Costs of the Notes to Condensed Financial Statements contained herein for costs incurred and amounts paid during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 related to the Company’s restructuring activities.
Upfront payments made in connection with business collaborations and research and development arrangements are evaluated under ASC Subtopic 730-20, Research and Development Arrangements. Amounts related to future research and development are capitalized as prepaid research and development and are expensed over the service period based upon the level of services provided. As of June 30, 2018, the Company had approximately $2.6 million of capitalized research and development costs included in prepaid expenses and other noncurrent assets.
Acquired In-Process Research and Development Expense
The Company has acquired and may continue to acquire the rights to develop and commercialize new drug candidates. In accordance with ASC Subtopic 730-25, Accounting for Research and Development Costs, the upfront payments to acquire a new drug compound, as well as future milestone payments when paid or payable, are immediately expensed as acquired in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) in transactions other than a business combination provided that the drug has not achieved regulatory approval for marketing and, absent obtaining such approval, has no alternative future use. Upon obtaining regulatory approval for marketing, any related milestone payments may be capitalized and amortized over the life of the asset.
Public Offering of Common Stock
On March 2, 2018, the Company closed an underwritten registered public offering of 20,535,714 shares of its common stock, which included the underwriters’ exercise in full of their option to purchase additional shares. The shares were sold at a public offering price of $4.20 per share. In the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company received aggregate net proceeds from the offering of approximately $80.9 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $5.2 million and offering expenses paid by the Company of $0.1 million.
Issuances Related to the License Agreement
In connection with the License Agreement, the Company issued to ABX on September 29, 2017, 2,000,000 unregistered shares of the Company’s common stock and two warrants to purchase up to 4,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock, one of which warrants to purchase 3,278,000 shares was exercised on that same day. Pursuant to a Registration Rights Agreement entered into with ABX, the Company registered for resale these 6,000,000 shares of common stock with the SEC on a Form S-3 Registration Statement that was declared effective on October 24, 2017
The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation pursuant to ASC Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”), which requires the recognition of the fair value of stock-based compensation in net income (loss). Stock-based compensation consists of stock options, which are granted at exercise prices at or above the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the dates of grant, service-based restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and shares available for purchase under the Company’s 2010 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). For RSUs and stock options issued by the Company, stock-based compensation expense is recognized ratably over the service period and forfeitures are accounted for as they occur. The Company recognizes compensation cost based on the grant date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718.
The Company had equity awards outstanding under two stock-based compensation plans at June 30, 2018. The awards made under the plan adopted in 2007 consisted of stock options. The 2010 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2010 Plan”), which is the only plan under which awards may currently be made, authorizes awards in the form of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, RSUs, performance-based RSUs and performance units and performance shares. Awards under the 2010 Plan may be made to employees, directors and certain consultants as determined by the compensation committee of the board of directors. There were 11,850,563 and 13,296,563 shares of common stock authorized and reserved under these plans at December 31, 2017 and June 30, 2018, respectively.
Under the various plans, employees have been granted incentive stock options, while directors and consultants have been granted non-qualified options. The plans allow the holder of an option to purchase common stock at the exercise price, which was at or above the fair value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.
Generally, options granted under the 2007 plan in connection with an employee’s commencement of employment vested over a four-year period with one-half of the shares subject to the grant vesting after two years of employment and the remaining options vesting monthly over the remainder of the four-year period. Options granted under the 2007 plan for performance or promotions vested monthly over a four-year period. Generally, options granted under the 2010 Plan vest annually over a three-year or four-year period. Unexercised stock options terminate on the tenth anniversary date after the date of grant. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period of the individual grantees, which generally equals the vesting period. The Company utilizes a Black-Scholes option-pricing model to estimate the value of stock options. The Black-Scholes model allows the use of a range of assumptions related to historical volatility, risk-free interest rate, employee exercise behavior and dividend yield.
The Company is using the “simplified” method for “plain vanilla” options to estimate the expected term of the stock option grants. Under this approach, the weighted-average expected life is presumed to be the average of the vesting term and the contractual term of the option. The risk-free interest rate assumption is derived from the weighted-average yield of a U.S. Treasury security with the same term as the expected life of the options, the volatility is calculated based on volatility of the Company’s daily stock prices since the initial public offering over the same term as the expected life of the options and the dividend yield assumption is based on historical experience and the Company’s estimate of future dividend yields.
Collaboration and Other Arrangements
ABX Development and License Agreement
In September 2017, the Company entered into the License Agreement with ABX that grants the Company exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize PSMA-617 agents. Under the terms of the License Agreement, the Company will be responsible for, and bear the future costs of, worldwide development and commercialization of PSMA-617. As consideration for the exclusive license, the Company made an upfront cash payment on September 29, 2017 of approximately $11.9 million to ABX, consisting of $12.0 million less an immaterial expense reimbursement amount, and issued to ABX 2,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock (see Note 7 – Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) of the Notes to Condensed Financial Statements for additional information regarding this issuance) and two warrants to purchase, in the aggregate, 4,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock (see Note 8 – Warrants of the Notes to Condensed Financial Statements for additional information regarding the warrants). The License Agreement also obligates the Company to pay ABX regulatory milestone payments of up to $25.0 million, sales milestone payments of up to $135.0 million, and tiered royalties, beginning in the mid-teens and not to exceed the mid-twenties, based on percentages of net sales.
In addition, under a three-party agreement, entered into in October 2017, among the Company, the University of Sydney (the “University”) and ANZUP, a cooperative cancer trials group operating in Australia and New Zealand pursuing research in genito-urinary malignancies, ANZUP sponsors jointly with the University a randomized phase 2 multi-center TheraP trial of 177Lu-PSMA-617 versus cabazitaxel in 200 mCRPC patients. The TheraP trial commenced enrollment in the first quarter of 2018. Under the three-party agreement, the Company provides product and financial support for the trial. The Company will have access to data generated from the trial, which is a potentially important supportive trial for future regulatory submissions. The primary financial obligations of the trial, along with labeling PSMA-617 with Lutetium-177, will be the responsibility of the University and ANZUP.
NMP License and Commercialization Agreement
In August 2013, the Company entered into a license and commercialization agreement with NMP that grants NMP the right to develop and commercialize etarfolatide in Japan for use in connection with any folate receptor-targeted therapeutic drug in Japan. The Company received a $1.0 million non-refundable upfront payment, is eligible for up to $4.5 million based on the successful achievement of regulatory goals for etarfolatide in five different cancer indications and is eligible to receive double-digit percentage royalties on sales of etarfolatide in Japan.
For revenue recognition purposes, the Company historically viewed the agreement with NMP as a multiple element arrangement upon execution of the agreement in 2013. The Company’s deliverables were accounted for as a single unit of account, therefore the non-refundable upfront payment was being recognized on a straight-line basis over the performance period which had been determined to continue through the estimated termination date of the contract, or through the end of 2033. In the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 and therefore analyzed the agreement with NMP using the five-step process as described in Note 3 – New Accounting Pronouncements of the Notes to Condensed Financial Statements contained herein. The Company determined that the upfront payment of $1.0 million relates to one performance obligation, which was determined to be the successful development and commercialization of etarfolatide in connection with a related folate receptor-targeted therapeutic drug in Japan, and should be allocated over the performance period that the Company estimates will be required to satisfy the combined performance obligation rather than the period over which the final undelivered item was estimated to be delivered, which was the life of the contract, under the previous standard. Under the modified retrospective method of adoption of ASC 606, the Company recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to reduce deferred revenue by $0.3 million and to decrease its retained deficit at January 1, 2018. The Company had deferred revenue related to the agreement with NMP of approximately $0.4 million at June 30, 2018 and will continue to record the revenue on a straight-line basis over the remaining estimated performance obligation period of approximately six years. The adoption of ASC 606 did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
The arrangement with NMP includes milestone payments of up to approximately $4.5 million and the milestones are based on the commencement of clinical trials in Japan for specific and non-specific indications and filing for approval in Japan for specific and non-specific indications. The Company evaluated each of these milestone payments and believes that all of the milestones should be excluded from the transaction price due to substantial performance risk. In order for the milestones to be reached, the Company must complete additional clinical trials which show a positive outcome or receive approval from a regulatory authority. To date, the products have not been approved in Japan and no revenue has been recognized related to the regulatory milestones or royalties.
NMP has the right to terminate the collaboration agreement on 90 days notice prior to the first commercial sale in Japan and six months notice after the first commercial sale in Japan. NMP also has the right to terminate the agreement on six months notice if the Company fails to launch any folate receptor-targeted therapeutic drug after receiving regulatory approval in Japan. NMP and the Company each have the right to terminate the agreement due to the material breach or insolvency of the other party. Upon termination of the agreement depending on the circumstances, the parties have varying rights and obligations with respect to licensing and related regulatory materials and data.
On September 29, 2017, the company entered into a Development and License Agreement, or the License Agreement, with ABX advanced biochemical compounds – Biomedizinische Forschungsreagenzien GmbH, or ABX, pursuant to which the company acquired exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize PSMA-617 agents, including the product candidate known as 177Lu-PSMA-617, a radioligand therapeutic, or RLT. Under the terms of the License Agreement, the company will be responsible for, and bear the future costs of, worldwide development and commercialization of PSMA-617. As consideration for the exclusive license, the company made an upfront cash payment on September 29, 2017 of approximately $11.9 million to ABX, consisting of $12.0 million less an immaterial expense reimbursement amount, and issued to ABX 2,000,000 shares of its common stock and warrants to purchase, in the aggregate, 4,000,000 shares of its common stock. The License Agreement also obligates it to pay ABX regulatory milestone payments of up to $25.0 million, sales milestone payments of up to $135.0 million, and tiered royalties, beginning in the mid-teens and not to exceed the mid-twenties, based on percentages of net sales. The company recorded $16.5 million of acquired in-process research and development, or IPR&D, expenses related to the License Agreement in 2017 consisting of the following:
- $12.0 million related to the upfront payment to ABX;
- $3.8 million related to the fair value of common stock and warrant shares issued; and
- $0.7 million of acquisition costs consisting primarily of legal and professional fees.
In October 2017, the company announced its plan to focus its resources on the development of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and on a targeted effort to generate proof-of-concept data for its EC17 adaptor-controlled chimeric antigen receptor T-cell, or EC17/CAR T-cell, therapy program, and to explore out-licensing opportunities for all other development programs.
In the three months ended June 30, 2018, the company initiated enrollment of the VISION trial, an international, prospective, open-label, multicenter, randomized phase 3 study of 177Lu-PSMA-617 enrolling up to 750 patients with progressive PSMA-positive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, or mCRPC. 177Lu-PSMA-617 utilizes a high affinity targeting ligand to direct potent radiotherapy to prostate cancer cells. The specific targeting of this therapy comes from the “ligand” portion of the RLT, which is a small molecule designed to bind to PSMA, a protein highly expressed on the cell surface of most prostate cancer cells but absent on most normal cells. The PSMA targeting ligand in 177Lu-PSMA-617 is chemically attached to a therapeutic radioactive atom called Lutetium-177 (177Lu), which releases an energetic beta particle designed to precisely deliver cell-killing radiation to the site of disease. Unlike traditional external beam radiotherapy, 177Lu-PSMA-617, which is administered as a systemic injection, has been designed to directly target multiple sites of PSMA-positive prostate cancer throughout the body, including the bone and soft tissue, while bypassing the PSMA-negative cells. Prior to treatment with 177Lu-PSMA-617, the patient’s expression of PSMA can be determined using imaging technology, allowing for personalization of treatment so that the optimum course of therapy might be selected. As highlighted in roughly 20 peer reviewed publications of trials in the post-chemotherapy compassionate use setting, 177Lu-PSMA-617 demonstrated a prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, response (defined as greater than 50% decline from baseline) in 40% to 60% of patients, and a Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, or RECIST, response rate in soft tissue disease of between 40% and 50%.
In October 2017, the company entered into an agreement with RadioMedix, Inc., a biotechnology company focused on innovative targeted radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of cancer, which enabled the transfer of a U.S. Investigational New Drug, or IND, application of 177Lu-PSMA-617 from the prior sponsor, RadioMedix, to it. This transfer helped accelerate its successful End of Phase 2 trial meeting with the U.S Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in early 2018 to confirm its phase 3 trial design and registration plan for 177Lu-PSMA-617.
On July 5, 2018, the company entered into a Global Supply Agreement, or the Supply Agreement, with ITG Isotope Technologies Garching GmbH, or ITG. The Supply Agreement supersedes the clinical supply agreement for the same product that the company announced on February 26, 2018. Under the Supply Agreement, ITG agrees to supply it with, and the company agree to purchase, 100% of the no-carrier-added lutetium-177, or Product, required for its phase 3 VISION trial. The company also agree to purchase, and ITG agrees to supply, at least 50%, and up to 100% at the its request, of its volume Product needs for 177Lu-PSMA-617 during the commercial phase, which begins upon the first commercial country launch of 177Lu-PSMA-617 following receipt of a full marketing authorization allowing sale of such product in that first country. The Supply Agreement provides that the company will make a one-time, upfront payment of 5 million Euros to ITG within 30 days following the effective date of the Supply Agreement. The Supply Agreement also sets forth various terms relating to the manufacture, ordering, supply and payment regarding the Product.
In October 2017, the company entered into a three-party agreement with the University of Sydney, or the University, and ANZUP, a cooperative cancer trials group operating in Australia and New Zealand pursuing research in genito-urinary malignancies, in which ANZUP sponsors jointly with the University a randomized phase 2 multi-center TheraP trial of 177Lu-PSMA-617 versus cabazitaxel in 200 mCRPC patients. The TheraP trial commenced enrollment in the first quarter of 2018. Under the three-party agreement, the company provide product and financial support for the trial. The company will have access to data generated from the trial, which is a potentially important supportive trial for future regulatory submissions. The primary financial obligations of the trial, along with labeling PSMA-617 with Lutetium-177, will be the responsibility of the University and ANZUP.
On May 9, 2018, The Lancet Oncology published updated data from a phase 2 investigator-initiated trial of 30 patients with PSMA-positive mCRPC treated with 177Lu-PSMA-617. Preliminary results of this trial were previously announced at the 2017 European Society for Medical Oncology, or ESMO, Congress and presented by Professor Michael Hofman of the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia. This publication provided a more comprehensive summary than previously disclosed of patient characteristics, treatment regimen and more mature outcome data, including updated Kaplan-Meier curves estimating overall survival, or OS, and PSA progression-free survival, or PFS, as well as a swimmer’s plot of the 30 patients. This study evaluated a heavily pre-treated patient population, 87% of which had received > 1 line of prior chemotherapy (80% docetaxel and 47% cabazitaxel) and 83% of which had received prior treatment with abiraterone acetate and/or enzalutamide. Observations in this study included a PSA reduction of at least 50% from baseline, or PSA50, in 57% of patients, a PSA reduction of at least 80% from baseline, or PSA80, in 43% of patients and a PSA reduction of > 96% in 20% of patients which were identified as “exceptional responders”. Regarding disease progression and survival, a median PSA PFS of 7.6 months and a median OS of 13.5 months were observed. Both the median PSA PFS and the median OS reflect improved outcomes versus the 6.3 months and 12.7 months for each endpoint, respectively, previously presented at the 2017 ESMO Congress. Notably, patients with a PSA50 response had improved median PSA PFS of 9.9 months and median OS of 17.0 months compared to PSA PFS of 4.1 months and median OS of 9.9 months for those patients who did not achieve a PSA50 response. Additionally, clinically meaningful improvements in quality of life measures were observed. Seventeen patients (57%) had prostate cancer working group 2, or PCWG2, RECIST 1.1 evaluable nodal or visceral target lesions following CT scan at baseline. Confirmed objective responses were seen in 14 (82%) of these 17 patients, including complete and partial response rates of 29% and 53%, respectively. The journal noted that 177Lu-PSMA-617 was well tolerated, with no significant dose-limiting toxicities observed. The most common treatment-related toxicity was Grade 1 xerostomia, commonly referred to as dry mouth, seen in 87% of patients, which is higher than previously reported (63%), but generally did not require any intervention. The occurrence of treatment-related Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity was low and comparable to the largest retrospective published cohort. On May 16, 2018, the company announced updated data on the additional 20 patient expansion cohort in the phase 2 trial of 177Lu-PSMA-617. In the 50 patients receiving 177Lu-PSMA-617, 62% had a greater than 50% reduction in their PSA levels and 44% had a PSA reduction of 80% or greater.
Endocyte is also developing a unique therapeutic approach that involves the re-targeting of potent immune cells, called CAR T-cells, to fight cancer. CAR T-cell therapies may be characterized as either allogeneic CAR T-cells, which are those that are engineered using T-cells from a single donor that are utilized in multiple patients, or autologous CAR T-cells, which are those that are engineered using a patient’s own T-cells. The company's program utilizes an autologous approach. Traditional CAR T-cell therapies rely on the activity and specificity of T-cells that have been engineered to recognize a single naturally expressed target that, ideally, is only present on cancer cells, with no cross-reactivity to or targeting of healthy tissues. The company's alternative strategy relies on a single universal CAR T-cell that expresses a high affinity for a molecule called fluorescein isothiocyanate, or FITC, which is not naturally present in the human body. The activity and specificity of these universal CAR T-cells is dependent upon the administration of its proprietary CAR T adaptor molecules, or CAMs, that “paint” a patient’s cancer cells with FITC by conjugating it to a tumor-targeting ligand. The FITC molecule then attracts the universal CAR T-cell to the site of disease, causing the anti-cancer immune response of a traditional CAR T-cell therapy. However, unlike existing CAR T-cell technologies, its unique CAM-dependent technology makes possible the engineering of a single universal CAR T-cell that can be used to treat a wide range of cancer types. This is accomplished through the use of multiple CAMs, each of which is designed to bind the FITC molecule to a specific cancer type. In addition to enabling the treatment of multiple cancer types with a single universal CAR T-cell, this adaptor technology is also designed to facilitate novel control strategies intended to increase the safety of CAR T-cell therapy. In March 2017, the company announced its collaboration with Seattle Children’s Research Institute, or SCRI, and Dr. Michael Jensen for the development of its technology in the CAR T-cell immunotherapy setting, in which the company use EC17 as the CAM. The aim of the research collaboration is to join its adapter technology with the CAR T-cell immunotherapy research efforts at the Ben Towne Center for Childhood Cancer Research at SCRI, to move these potentially enabling technologies more quickly to patients in the clinic. In October 2017, the company announced that Endocyte is limiting the scope of its EC17/CAR T-cell therapy program to a targeted effort to generate proof-of-concept data. Pre-clinical evaluations have been completed, and the IND application is expected to be filed in the fourth quarter of 2018.
In June 2017, the company ended clinical development of EC1456, its second-generation folate-targeted product candidate, and stopped enrollment in its EC1456 phase 1b trial as the assessment of trial data did not yield the level of clinical activity necessary to support continued advancement of EC1456. In December 2017, the company stopped enrollment in its EC1456 ovarian cancer surgical trial. In addition, in June 2017, the company narrowed the focus of its phase 1 EC1169 (a PSMA-targeted product candidate) development program (for which enrollment was completed in October 2017, but for which the company currently do not intend to invest further resources beyond the completion of the phase 1 taxane-exposed cohort), refocused its efforts on pre-clinical programs, and reduced its workforce by approximately 40% to align resources to focus on its highest value opportunities while maintaining key capabilities. The company recorded $2.3 million of restructuring expenses in the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, as follows:
- included in research and development expenses were expenses for employee termination benefits of $0.9 million, $0.9 million for the remaining EC1456 phase 1b trial expenses, including site close-out expenses, $0.3 million related to other restructuring expenses, and $0.1 million related to fixed asset impairment charges; and
- included in general and administrative expenses were expenses for employee termination benefits of $0.1 million.
As of June 30, 2018, the company had paid all severance and other costs related to the restructuring activities.
At December 31, 2017, the company had a clinical trial accrual balance related to the EC1456 phase 1b trial termination of $106,900. There were no material adjustments to the EC1456 phase 1b trial termination accrual balance during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, and payments made against the accrual in those periods were $8,500 and $92,100, respectively. The remaining accrual balance at June 30, 2018 is immaterial and is expected to be paid by the end of 2018.
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, the company had a net loss of $20.2 million compared to a net loss of $23.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. The company had a retained deficit of $328.8 million at June 30, 2018. The company expect to continue to incur significant operating expenses for the next several years as the company pursue the advancement of its product candidates through the research, development, regulatory and, potentially, the commercialization processes. The company's operating costs were lower for the six months ended June 30, 2018 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2017, primarily due to decreases in expenses related to pre-clinical work and general research, decreases in trial and manufacturing expenses for EC1456 and EC1169 and decreases in compensation expenses as a result of employee terminations since June 30, 2017. These decreases were partially offset by increases in expenses related to PSMA-617 development, including expenses related to the phase 3 VISION trial, increases in expenses related to the EC17/CAR T-cell therapy program, and increases in general and administrative fees, including legal and professional fees.
As of June 30, 2018, its cash, cash equivalents and investments were $166.8 million, which included $80.9 million of net proceeds from its public offering of 20,535,714 shares of its common stock that closed in March 2018.